Mathematics at the University of Florida in Gainesville, the first 65 years

Author - Dr. Paul Ehrlich - Math Professor - University of Florida - Gainesville

We have seen how Simpson served as Head Professor from 1918 until 1951 and how Kokomoor served as Head of Freshmen Mathematics from the time of the inception of the University College in 1935 until his retirement in 1960. Of course, when Simpson was Dean of the Graduate School, Kokomoor must have had a large role in running the department on a day to day basis, until he himself was the chair from 1951 until 1960. Just as President Sledd was able to speak for himself in 2 through the Sledd correspondence, Dr. Kokomoor has left us two documents at the University of Florida Oral History Project at the Florida Museum; first, a document he himself wrote, entitled The Years of My Life [1], which was apparently written to provide background for his oral interview; and second, the transcript of the oral history interview [2] conducted by Robert Johnson of Dr. Kokomoor on August 17, 1973 when Kokomoor was in his early 80's, which turned out to be over 50 typed pages. Also in the Kokomoor file at the Museum, is an undated clipping [3] from the Gainesville Sun written by Anita Mitchell Tassinari describing an interview of Dr. and Mrs. Kokomoor conducted by Ms. Tassinari when Dr. Kokomoor was ninety and Mrs. Kokomoor was eighty-four. It is interesting that Mrs. Kokomoor's comments on life in Gainesville in the late 1920's are rather reminiscent of Mrs. Benton's recollections which were presented in Appendix F of Chapter 5. So in this chapter, we will flesh out the material of Chapter 5 as pertains to the Kokomoor's by drawing on these sources, as well as several additional sources which were in Kokomoor's file at the University Archives, Smathers Library. First, a manuscript [4] written by Professor Freeman Hart after his retirement on the Kokomoors; second, an article and a picture of Dr. Kokomoor which seems to have been published in a Florida alumni publication in June, 1966; third, some press release material stemming from the time of Kokomoor's retirement in 1960.

As I was working on Chapter 5 several months before discovering references [1], [2], and [4], I came across quite by accident, a picture of Dr. Kokomoor astride his bicycle correctly attired in a suit, contained in the 1939 Seminole, while I was leafing through these old yearbooks in the University Archives looking for pictures of our former colleagues. Indeed, this 1939 yearbook is dedicated to Professor Kokomoor with the following inscription:

This volume of the seminole is

respectfully dedicated to Doctor 

Franklin Wesley Kokomoor,

Professor of the Department of

Mathematics, and Chairman of

the Board of Student Publications.

Now from the vantage point of the 1990's, it seems rather remarkable, first, that a yearbook of an entire University would be dedicated to a mathematician and second, that a mathematician would be in charge of the Board of Student Publications. So this dedication reveals that Dr. Kokomoor had what would seem to most of us today, a high involvement in student affairs on campus. This impression of Kokomoor's high visibility was confirmed a month or so later when I was consulting Dr. Proctor's thesis in the University Archives and noticed for the first time Kreher's book of photographs [5], We are the boys from old Florida ..., which happened to be placed on top of Proctor's thesis. Unfortunately, many of the people in these old photographs are not identified by name, but leafing through this book, I was pleasantly surprised to come across a photograph of Professor Kokomoor, wearing white shoes and standing in front of a chalkboard on which was written the binomial expansion. This photograph was captioned

Dr. Kokomoor
Mathematics Professor
Chairman, Student Board of Publications.

Finally, as we have mentioned in Chapter 5, in the late twenties and early thirties, three members of our Department, Thomas Simpson, Wilbert Little, and Franklin Kokomoor all served on the Committee for Student Religious Welfare.

We do not feel we can improve on sources [1], [2], and [4] in describing Kokomoor's family background. Professor Freeman Hart writes in [4]

``Franklin Wesley Kokomoor was born of German parentage in Dale, Indiana, on
July 10, 1890.  He was the son of Henry Fredrick Charles Kokomoor and Sophia
Wedaking, his wife, who had made a home for themselves in southern Indiana, a 
few miles away from the Ohio River and thus with Kentucky neighbors not too far
away.  As the name indicates, the Kokomoor family moved from the
Netherlands over the border into Germany and from there the
grandfather emigrated to America, first to Hamilton, Ohio, and then to
Indiana. As part of the price that needed to be paid for living on the
still somewhat untamed frontier the grandfather was robbed and
murdered as he returned from taking the produce to market.

Dr. Kokomoor's father, then, set up his home as part of his father's own
holdings and there ten children were born of whom Franklin Wesley was
the youngest. One of the three-mile away neighbors of the Kokomoors was
the Thomas Lincoln family and their son, Abraham Lincoln, who lived in
the community, during his formative teenage, that is, from seven to
twenty-one.  The old world loyalty to church and home brought to America
by the Kokomoors and their neighbors, enhanced rather than diminished
by the rigors of frontier life, undoubtedly made its impact on the life
of Abraham Lincoln. (It was in this community that Lincoln as a boy of
nine years waited by the wayside that he might ask a circuit rider to
preach his mother's funeral sermon.)''

Dr. Kokomoor in [2] has the following comments on this heritage which led him to a deep involvement in community service and religious works.

``I got interested in the Methodist work because I was brought up that way. Back in the community where I grew up, these were German people who had come to Ohio first or Kentucky. If you'll notice on my mother's side, they settled in Kentucky, but they all came from Germany. I'd say the first generation I think this must have happened, they came into contact with the Methodist people. And so, they formed what they called the German Methodist Church, which was exactly like what we now call United Methodist Church.''
``I see.''
``But they were organized as separate conferences in order that they could take care of German-speaking people. A lot of the people didn't understand any English. A lot of them brought up in the German Methodist Church. They spoke nothing but German when I was a little bit of a youngster, but by the time I came home, the tenth in a family of ten children, they were getting to talk quite a lot of English at home and everywhere else.''

The four daughters of the family all became homemakers in Dale. Of the six brothers, one died as a small boy, three were carpenters in Dale, and one older brother became a medical doctor. He was the one who was apparently the most successful in getting their father to talk about his experiences during the Civil War in the Northern Army. Kokomoor writes in [1] that his father had been apprenticed to a shoemaker when the Civil War broke out. His father enlisted in the 42nd Indiana Infantry at the age of 18. During the third year of the Civil War, Kokomoor's father was shot twice in battle which then led to his capture and imprisonment, first for 6 months in Libby Prison in Richmond, then for 13 months in Andersonville Prison in Georgia. In [2], Kokomoor related

``I was told through my older brothers of some of the experiences. Of course, they formed this prison right out in the open fields, you might say. There were a few trees around there and they cut most of them down to make room ... and then they built a big fence out of the logs.... And they just herded these men as fast as they could get them into this prison camp. They had no sanitary arrangements of any kind, just a little brook that ran through there had fairly fresh water to start with, but soon it became stale and stagnant and putrid, so it must have been a pretty tough place to live.''

Kokomoor's father died in 1909. Franklin was attending a high school in Dale that had only offered two years of education, but just when Franklin came along, changed to offering four years of education. Thus Franklin found himself one of the first two students to graduate in 1909 from this local school with four years of high school education. Franklin and his bride to be, Flora Mae Weller, lived near each other in the Dale area, but went to different little schools, even though they attended the same Methodist church. In [2], Kokomoor has the following comments on how high school education was perceived in those times by most Americans in those parts.

``... And, of course, everybody who went to high school in our day [the early 1900's] was preparing to go to college.''
``...But in our day, they didn't even think a high school education was necessary. What good does Latin do you? My heaven! My older brothers asked me that question dozens of times. They were carpenters. And they said, you can't make any use of Latin. Of course, we had Latin required of us. I took four years of Latin in high school, and geometry and algebra and so forth. They weren't good to you at all. They were carpenters. They could do all their carpentry work without knowing any algebra. Other people were pretty much the same.
``Oh, I see.''
``So they quit and maybe would go as long as they had to, which would be through sixth, seventh, or eighth grade and then they didn't have to go to school anymore, so they'd get the job. That was the big thing.''

After graduating from high school, Kokomoor worked at carpentry with his brothers for several years in order to save up some money to attempt to obtain a college education. He comments in [2]

``What got you interested in mathematics over the years? Was this as a young person or did you have to wait until you got into college before ...''
``No, very young. I guess if I gave you a brief answer, one particular teacher got me interested in mathematics. He was principal of the little two- year high school which I attended in Dale and I took several courses with him and then got so interested in mathematics I kept right on.''
``So in other words, right from the start, you were, had this interest in mathematics.''
``Oh, yes. I never could quite get rid of it, although I did even try, because as I said before, I was very much interested in going into religious work too.''
``In which I wouldn't have used very much mathematics, but I always got back to mathematics in a very short time.''
``I see you worked on a farm and also as a carpenter to earn money for college. Was it pretty rough in those days? This was around 1911, 1912? Tell me something about your college days.''
``Well, of course, my biggest handicap was lack of money. We had no relief organizations of any kind, no fellowships, no scholarships, any source of getting extra money or even borrowing money unless you knew some private person who could help you out financially, so, for two years, I worked at carpenter trade mainly because I had brothers who were carpenters and I worked with them, made a little money. And Valparaiso University in northern Indiana was, was at that time, known as the poor boy's school, It was a large school.''

Thus, Kokomoor took his undergraduate work at Valparaiso University, graduating with the B.S. degree in 1915. He describes his student days vividly in [2].

``...but when I got there, I got there so late that I couldn't
get a job for the first term .... I had a little money, I'd paid
in advance $16.80 for twelve weeks of board. Figure it out for yourself.
At $1.40 a week. And I didn't buy as much
as a bag of peanuts extra.  I lived off of that.  Of course, we got
oatmeal every morning for breakfast and an apple and maybe a little
something else I can't think of now.  Milk, of course, with the
oatmeal.  Each Monday or each Tuesday or each Wednesday of each week,
each meal we had the same thing that we've had that same day all the
previous weeks. 
Then the second term, I got a job washing pots and pans in this same dining
room owned by the university called Heritage Hall .... Then later
on, I made a  little advancement.  I got a job as janitor in Music
Hall.  It wasn't quite as messy as washing pots and pans, but my last
year was the big thing. I got a job as teacher of University
Physiology, which was a required course for all pharmacy students.
That was a much more suitable job.

...The reason why I happened to get this job was because I had a
few electives that I could take and I was always, always thought that
I would be interested in, learning more about the human body ...
and so I thought I'd take this, what they call University Physiology.
I just took it as an elective.''
``I see.''
``I liked it very much. I did very well in it, I think. Anyway, at the end of the year, the professor asked me if I didn't want the job to teach the laboratory. Of course I had taken that laboratory, worked through that year myself. As well as class work. And that's how I happened to do it. I was not connected with pharmacy students at all.''
``Now you graduated with a B.S. degree in 1915.''
``That's right.''
``What were your plans after that? Did you more or less set out on your own for the first time, or did you have a connection here or there that ...''
``Well, I'm ashamed to answer you honestly, but I'll have to. I didn't have any plans. I didn't know whether I could do anything. I was doing all right very well, as a matter of fact in my class work, and schoolwork and so on, but I was a very timid person. I couldn't go out among the world among strangers, and do what I had seen lots of other people do. So I was just more or less finishing the course. But somebody from the Georgia Normal College and Business Institute came to Valparaiso and was looking for a teacher of mathematics mainly, and a few other things along with the mathematics. And he had gone to the office of the vice-president who, at that time, handled the placement work, whatever placement work was done by the school at that time. ......he just recommended me to this man and this man looked me up and talked to me and asked me if I wanted the job and that's how I got into teaching.''

The Georgia Normal College and Business Institute was located in Douglas, Georgia, not far from Valdosta. Douglas also contained the Eleventh District Agricultural College.

``...But what type of math courses were offered in those days? Was there general math?''
``No, they didn't offer a general mathematics at all. It was always something like algebra---arithmetic, of course, algebra, and, and maybe an advanced course in algebra and geometry, plane geometry, solid geometry, following pretty much the pattern of the old Euclid's geometry. They didn't have what we had called later on general mathematics.''
``I see.''
``Or comprehensive mathematics, which we didn't have any. They had each subject pretty well separated into algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry and so forth.''

Kokomoor writes in [1] that after this one year, 1915--1916 of teaching at the Georgia Normal College,

`` mind was unsettled as to whether I wanted to continue
teaching or enter the ministry, for I was very much interested in
both.  So I decided to move a bit deeper toward the ministry to learn
more about it, and so I entered Nast Theological Seminary in Cleveland
in the fall of 1916.  But W W I was coming closer and unexpected job
openings were appearing.

In the fall of 1917, I was offered an appointment in the Methodist ministry
at Edgerton, Ohio, with the opportunity of continuing my ministerial
preparation by taking a Conference supervised 5-year study course,
with annual end-of-year examinations.  It was a plan then approved by
the Church by its officers for on-the-job-trainees.  I took this
course, and continued it until the fall of 1921 it was completed and I
was ordained an Elder by the Methodist church.''

The Kokomoors were married on November 1, 1917. In [3], Mrs. Kokomoor comments

``Things moved more slowly in those days,'' laughed Mrs. Kokomoor.

 ``Frank and I grew up only one and a half miles apart and attended the
same church.  But before we were married he had earned his first
degree and worked several years away from home, and I had started
teaching school.

Ours was an old-fashioned wedding in my family home in Rockport, Indiana. We
prepared food for almost a week before the wedding.''

In [1], Kokomoor continues his description of their half decade in Edgerton as follows:

``World War I days came closer to us, and in the spring of 1917 our country
entered it.  Very quickly there appeared vacancies in the old work areas due to
the movement of people from them into the better paying war jobs.  A vacancy
suddenly appeared in the Edgerton schools, and being certified, I was
offered the principalship of the Edgerton school system, the work to
be handled along with my work as a minister.  Thus for four years I
did double duty in the community.  After that---from 1921 to
1923---I served exclusively as superintendent of schools

This experience revived my interest in the further study of
mathematics, which continued to be my favorite subject of study.''

In [2], Kokomoor comments more fully about the World War I period, especially recalling the difficulties of the German-American community during this conflict. However, we will not reproduce that particular discussion here.

``Did you find an interest in the ministry, and also teaching in mathematics compatible? I see you went to a theological seminary in 1916.''
``Well, I didn't get very through. World War I came along and a vacancy arose everywhere, so I was offered a job and I finished it on the job. I found teaching and working a ministry were very compatible, as a matter of fact. Not exactly the same, I understand, but you're among people, you're working with people. In both cases, you learn how to present things to people, so they understand what you mean and what you want them to grasp and so forth. And either one is good practice and preparation for the other, I would say.''
``Well, America got into the World War, I believe in the spring of 1917. And, that was while I was in my first year at the Nash Theological Seminary. And, almost immediately, they needed civilian war workers as well as enlistees in the army and so forth.''
``I didn't say that in there [i.e., in [1]], but I volunteered to go in as a chaplain ... . But you see I was thirty-one years old, I mean I was twenty-seven years old when I got in I volunteered a year or so later than that. You see, we didn't get deeply into the war immediately when we entered the war. A couple of years before we got to begin to pick up the troops and so on. I thought maybe it would be a good service I could give. So I did volunteer, but I was told I was a little too old. They were taking younger men. I wasn't too old according to the regulations, but they still preferred to get someone ... a younger man.''
``Uh huh.''
``So that's why I didn't go into the service.''
``Now you're a principal, also a minister, and also a teacher I believe in these days.''
``That's right.''
``That's quite an active, twenty-four years there.''
``I was plenty busy.''

In [1], Kokomoor writes the following about his deciding to go to graduate school at the University of Michigan beginning in 1923.

``This experience [in Edgerton] revived my interest in the further study of
mathematics, which continued to be my favorite subject of study.  Hence
in 1923 I was transferred to the West Side Methodist Church in Ann Arbor,
Mich. so that, along with my church work I might pursue the study of
graduate mathematics at the University of Michigan.  This I did for
four years, 1923--1927, doing, along with my ministerial work,
full time graduate work in mathematics for three of those years and
serving as full time instructor at Michigan for the fourth year.  
And thus in 1924 I received the A.M. degree with major in mathematics
and a minor in physics, and in 1926 the Ph.D. degree with minors in
philosophy and physics.''

An interesting comment in [2] is that his choice of graduate school was in part dictated by the fact that certain institutions like the University of Illinois, did not accept any credits for work done at Valparaiso, whereas others like Yale and the University of Michigan would transfer all of Kokomoor's undergraduate credits. Kokomoor's supervisor was Professor L. C. Karpinski and Kokomoor wrote his thesis, as we have already indicated in Appendix C of Chapter 5 on The teaching of elementary geometry in the seventeenth century. Later in 1928, Kokomoor published three articles in the history of science journal Isis on this material, as noted in Appendix C, Chapter 5. An interesting comment in the oral transcript [2] concerns how Kokomoor obtained access to some of the materials used for this study.

``...I worked for two weeks one time down in the fourth
basement on Park Avenue in New York in the private library of, of
George A. Plimpton, who was at that time, head of Ginn and Company,
printing.  And he was a collector of some of these rare and very
costly and precious mathematics books. Most of them not even printed,
just written in longhand and so on.  He had his private library down there and
the man under whom I worked at Michigan [Dr. L. C. Karpinski] knew
Plimpton and in that way, I had access to the use of this library.
Now, no library can replace these things.  Nobody, you can't get these
things.  I'm a little worried about all of these universities in the
state of Florida.  They can't all have good libraries now.''

More information is provided about Professor Karpinski and the study of the history of mathematics in America during those times in Appendix C to this chapter.

In the fall of 1927, Dr. Kokomoor began his service at the University of Florida with the rank of Assistant Professor. In sources [1] and [2], Kokomoor comments on aspects of the development of the Department that we have seen second hand from the University Records and Catalogues in Chapters 3 and 5, including Dr. Simpson as Head Professor, the establishment of the Lower Division, and the introduction of the Department of Religion. Kokomoor recalls that during his first semester, the professorial rank consisted of Dr. Simpson and three assistant professors, all new to the University. In [1], Kokomoor summarizes all these changes as follows:

``During the years of my active professorship great changes took place in the
University and correspondingly in the department of mathematics.  The
mathematics staff grew from 4 when I began my work here in to 44 when
I retired as head of the department in 1960.  The number of sections
taught in any semester increased at least ten-fold.  New courses were
offered and old ones were updated .... By the time I had become
head of the department in 1951 we were among the early departments to
receive approval for offering the Ph.D. degree.''

In [2], Johnson asks Kokomoor concerning his coming to Florida in 1927:

``What about the courses and some of the personalities you recall in these days now?''
``Well, when I first came as I said in my notes that I gave you there, there were only four of us in the department and three of us were new. Two others besides myself, just new. We taught fifteen, eighteen hours a week of classwork and, and that was the full content of our mathematics offering here. But in the course of time, as we got more students and new colleges, and new colleges needed new mathematical services and so on. We kept on growing until I retired. I guess we were offering at least ten times as many sections in mathematics in any one term or semester than we did at the time when I first came here. We kept adding new members of the faculty and we'd work hard to get the best talent available from a variety of our better universities, so we had faculty members from the University of California, the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois, the University of Michigan, Ohio State University, Yale, and Harvard.''
``Who was the department head?''
``Dr. T. M. Simpson was head of the department when I came here and he was head until I took his place.''
``I see.''
``And he retired, and so I took his place as head.''
``Was he one of the prime movers in this development?''
``He was one of them and he had a staff. We all worked under him. We all worked very hard and we kept putting in new courses, keeping them updated, making them comparable to the best courses that were offered in the, in the other universities, so that of the country and adding new courses and making new demands. There were a lot of changes. For instance, at one time, there was almost no statistical mathematics taught. Well, we put in statistical courses and kept, they kept growing and so forth and demand for them kept growing. Anybody who knew about mathematics now knows that mathematics and statistics is one of the extremely important subjects to study. I knew the number of new courses developed in the course of time. For instance, a course like topology which very few people now outside the realm of mathematics still have any interest in or knowledge of, but it's a very growing subject. It's an amazing, surprising subject so far as the richness of its content and so forth was concerned. So, we had to keep up with all the progress that was going on in the country and we put in new courses to meet the demands, And I thought by that time---I guess it was in the early thirties or early forties. Well, the general college was set up in 1935. That more or less took all of our attention when we were doing that. But after we had the general college set up and going, we were working on developing the mathematical offerings and so on. And we did a great deal of very hard work getting our department equipped in every way with faculty and with course offerings and so forth to offer the Ph.D. in mathematics. And we were among one of the earlier departments to be approved for offering the Ph.D's.''

Elsewhere in [2], Kokomoor has the following additional comments on Dean Simpson.

``He and I had been working together ever since I came here.  There was
never a hitch between us.  We worked together like a team should work, I should
say.  And so there was perfect harmony between us.  We had what we thought was 
the right and sane philosophy of mathematics and philosophy of
teaching, so that when he moved down to the office of the dean of the
graduate school, I really was sort of the acting head of the department
of mathematics.

We gradually built up the department in that way. One of the things we did
during that period was to strengthen our staff by two or three more very good
Ph.D.'s with experience from other places. And we offered a doctor's degree in

In the Gainesville Sun interview [3] Kokomoor has the following comments about his early days in Gainesville, which partly explain his strong and continuing interest in the students and their welfare, which was demonstrated by a consistently high level of committee work both on and off campus during Kokomoor's whole time in Gainesville and even into his retirement years.

``The student enrollment in 1927 was just over 2,000, so you see we
were a small and close knit school.  The professors developed strong ties
of loyalty and pride in their university, perhaps because each of us
became intimately involved in campus activities, as well as teaching''

One of the most enjoyable parts of [2] is Professor Kokomoor's recollections after over 40 years of the delights of traveling down to Gainesville to take up his first full fledged university position in 1927.

``...What were your first impressions of Gainesville when you came here in those days (1927)? You were with your wife, I guess, and you came down and you were instructor or assistant professor or, what was this?''
``I came as an assistant professor. Well, my impression of Gainesville was not quite as surprising and shocking to me as my wife's impressions. She had never been down South.''
``I see.''
``And I had been down at Douglas teaching at Georgia Normal College and Business Institute.''
``That's right.''
``And I knew more about what the South was like. I loved it.''
``I have always loved the South and still do. You couldn't get me up above the Mason and Dixon Line and spend a winter unless you chained me up.''
``So, it is merely a climatic reason you like the South?''
``Other reasons too.''
``And I like the people of the South. People of the South were like the people of the Middle West. They're more open and approachable. Less independent, I almost thought than the people of the East, Northeast. The people of the South are open and you can talk to them. You can get acquainted with them and so forth. I think there is not so much difference any more.''
``Perhaps not.''
``You see, travel and communications have changed so much since, back in the day when I came to Gainesville. You went somewhere by train or you went in your own automobile and they were pretty scarce. I did have my own automobile when I came to Gainesville. We drove down in our automobile.''
``That must have been an interesting trip. How long?''
``Five days. It took me five days to get here from southern Indiana.''
``Five days.''
``I could do it in one day now.''
``What highway approached Gainesville in those days?''
``Well, the near, the best road from Cincinnati or Louisville or Evansville to Florida in those days was U.S. 41. There was already a U.S. 41 in 1927, paved most of the way, but very poorly paved in most places, not paved in some places at all. But it was marked fairly well. It was already marked out as a United States highway. You had to do a lot of detouring. If you detoured, you detoured through dirt roads invariably. After it was raining, you'd go through the mud or it would be soft.''
``Where'd you stop on the way down? I, I was surprised that Dr. Byers [Charles F. Byers, first chairman for Man and the Biological World] mentioned the other week they did have motels. Oh, I believe they called them tourist courts in those days. Did you stop at them?''
``Well, they had towns, I guess, would come closer to it. They didn't call them motels. That name developed later on.''
``But, anybody who had a building of any sort could set up a building along U.S. 41, and they could make a sleeping quarters or something like that, could put up a sign. There were no laws regulating it and you didn't have any restrictions about water supply or anything. You used the well right there next to his house or next to his barn.''
``...the water that he used. I recall one time we were coming down. It must have been within the first year or two after, probably the second summer---the first summer after we spent the winter here. We went up North to visit our folks and when we came back, we had to do a long detour in Georgia above Atlanta. And we're getting along toward the latter part of the afternoon and it's raining. We had to detour on a muddy, red clay or yellow clay dirt road. And so I kept plowing along in low, trying to keep myself in the middle of the road, to keep from sliding off on the right or on the left side. And it got dark early. One time, I thought certainly I had stopped completely, but I just managed to get out of the place. Had the family with me. I had two children then, and my wife. And we were getting quite worried. Still on the detour, and it was thundering and lightening. If it were lightening, I couldn't see whether I was on the road or not. Otherwise, more or less guessed at it. Anyway, I was getting very discouraged, when suddenly I saw ahead of me a bright light. And when I came to it, the detour came upon U.S. 41 at right angles, and right across the road from where the detour ended was a barn. They had the big double doors of the barn wide open and they had it all lit up with electric lights---Dad's Place, and Booths, or something of that sort. I just drove straight across U.S. 41 into the driveway of that barn and we spent the night there. We slept in a granary, a corn bin, I suppose it was. Just barely big enough to put a cot or a couple, bed in it. And then, next to it was another corn bin and the children slept in that and that's the way we spent our night. That's the kind of motel we had.''
``But you were glad to see it that night.''
``Some detours that you found, that we found in Kentucky for several years, had to be made right down in the bed of a creek. Dry, dry bed of a creek. It was the only way you could detour, just around somewhere they were building a highway.''
``That was in the late '20s now?''
``That's right.''
``So you say your wife had a different impression.''
``Well, she didn't like it. Was one of the worst things we struck as far as she was concerned. Housing was very, very tight in Gainesville when we came here. You see, this boom, the Florida boom was on along about 1924, 1925 and it began to break in South Florida and gradually the banks began to close up by 1929.''
`` Okay, you can just pick up where you left off.''
``So, when we came to Gainesville, I couldn't find a house to rent. Hunted all over the city and everything was taken except an old house right downtown. There's a parking lot there now. The house is gone, but it didn't even stand vertically. It was an old dirty house that I could have rented. And we didn't want it at all. So we lived in a tourist camp for two and a half weeks and maybe three weeks while I was looking for a house. And of course, that was very unpleasant for my wife and family to live in that tourist camp. No air conditioning, hot. We arrived the last day of August. So the first week or two or three weeks of September and it happened to be a very dry, warm September. She'd have been glad to go back up North if she could have. But, then I bought the house that I lived in, a little house. We lived there a year. I bought this ... it wasn't quite finished. We had to wait until the carpenter had it finished. And we moved into that.''
``So you had to buy a house instead of finding one for rent?''
``I had to buy one, yes. But we've never changed. We still live in that house. I built it a little bigger as time went on and its probably twice as big in floor space now. It is just an ordinary house, but it's quite comfortable and livable. Not in a good residential section anymore. There are rooming houses around, but we don't have any trouble at all.''
``Right. Yeah, I guess. Gainesville's real estate's changed quite a bit since the 1920's.''
``Yes, there was a cornfield or two between the University and the courthouse downtown along there what is now West University Avenue. Believe it or not, there was.''
``Cornfield. Raised corn every year for two or three years.''
``Did you find it very difficult to live on your salary in Gainesville in those days or?''
``Well, of course you had to be economical in everything that you did, but we were brought up that way. Both my wife and me. She and I were brought up that way. As a matter of fact, we have never had any financial troubles in that way at all because we just live economically. So we managed to get along all right. I was offered $2400.'' [It is amusing to note that that is precisely the amount that Andrew Sledd was offered in 1904--1905 as President of the University of Florida in Lake City. Also, a faculty wife has told me that many years ago when she was baby sitting for a Professor William Fox in the business school, Fox told her that Kokomoor was so frugal as Chairman with the Mathematics Department's budget that he would even turn back unused monies to the Dean.]
``This was an assistant professorship?''
``As an assistant professor. But they said, `That's all the money we think we have,' but they said, `it may be that we could get a little more for you.' I, of course, didn't expect any little more, but after I had been here about two or three months or six months, I guess it was half a semester maybe, I was told that I would get $2500, that they found a little more they could get for me. But that was what the salary was. That sounds like very little now, but then, it's understandable. Everything was a lot cheaper then.''

We have deduced from the University of Florida Records in Chapter 5 that academic planning for the establishment of the Lower Division must have been going on during the academic year 1934--1935. In [2], we can find Dr. Kokomoor's recollection of this process as the faculty member responsible for planning the new mathematics offering in the Lower Division.

``...I still believe the General College was a good thing.''
``Tell me something about that now.''
``I don't say that that is the only way to get an education. As a matter of fact, I got an education without having a General College but I still think that our General College set up was a good way to give students a good education. A good start in education, of course. You see, our philosophy was after all, when you go to college, about the first two years of your college work is basic training. And it's really basic in almost any aspect of life you go into. So we set these courses up. We built up these courses so there were six of them. You mentioned Dr. Byers a while ago. He worked hard on what they called in the beginning Man in the Biological World. ... Man ... in the Physical World, and Man and his Thinking. Man and his Thinking involved philosophy, logic and mathematics. And so we built these six courses up in that way. For instance, .... Somebody who goes into history, or social sciences of any kind, no matter what he majors in later on, isn't there a certain amount of mathematics that everybody ought to know and be familiar with?''
``Oh, yes, indeed.''
``... we outlined what we thought would be desired for a course in mathematics, if we were going to require that mathematics of all students regardless of what they were going to major in, or even if they intended to stay only a semester or one year and drop out of the university. And so to begin with, in the fall of 1935, not having a textbook available, it was my job to get up some sort of temporary course for the fall. So that summer, the summer of 1935, I published, I think it may have been maybe a 100 page paper-back pamphlet. That was what we called The Syllabus in General Mathematics--C-42 Syllabus.

...... This was not a permanent piece of work. We had two textbooks from which we selected problems, and assignments were made in this little syllabus for the day-to-day work. And then we had collateral readings taken from about twelve or fifteen books, pamphlets, and so on, some very new, some very old.

...... We got along with that kind of arrangement for several years, shifting around a little, making a few changes, but not any fundamental changes. And I was encouraged to write a textbook for the course, and I began working on it along about 1940. In 1942, Prentice-Hall published this textbook [Mathematics in Human Affairs] that I referred to ....

This text was for a two-semester course. Only the first semester was required of all students [or they could place out of this, of course, and take calculus], but the College of Education required both semesters as Kokomoor recalled it.''

In Chapter 5, we presented the recollections of Mrs. Pirenian, Mrs. Simpson, and Mrs. Ring on the role of our campus in training armed forces troops during World War II. In 1973, Dr. Kokomoor had the following recollections of this time period in [2]. An official version of the activities of the University during World War II as described by President Tigert in his Biennial Report for the period ending June 30, 1944 in the University Record is presented in Appendix A to this chapter.

``Speaking of the war, did you realize a large increase in student enrollment following the war?''
``Well, in, at the beginning of the war, we had probably fourteen or fifteen hundred students in the university at any one time. And then when the, when the war came, this university being a school for men only, you understand ....''
``Yes, sir.''
``It wasn't made co-educational until about 1945 or 1946 as I remember. [ed., actually in 1947.] And also, this being a university land-grant school, which had compulsory military training, and nearly all those boys, able-bodied boys, took military training and at the end of the second years, they became lieutenants---first, second lieutenants---in the Army. So, when the war came, they called them out very fast. And, they also drafted a lot of our students and we had no women, so our enrollment dropped way down at the very beginning of the war.''
``I bet.''
``Then the Army began sending us students, student army training that they called the Student Army Training Corps, I believe. And very quickly, we got 2500 or 3000 new students coming in from various places for special training. Now, all of these students had to have mathematics, among other things.''
``I see.''
``Then a very short time after that, the Air Force began sending us students, one flight after the other. They call their sections flights. It's actually a mathematical flight. And, so we had probably 200, 2000, or 2500 students in the air training course. They had to have mathematics, a much more elementary type, but the Student Army Training Corps---they sent those boys down here and many of them went right on through and finished the College of Engineering or something like that here. So we taught a lot of mathematics then.''
``I bet.''
``We taught a lot of mathematics to both of them.''
``I guess following the war, the increased interest in science and so forth allowed an enrollment increase.''
``Oh yes. Following the war, the veterans came back and, and many of them went back to college. They were really very good students too, because they were serious-minded, a little older, and very much determined to make good. And we found them, I thought, to be much less frivolous and carefree and so forth than the average person who comes out of high school who doesn't really know if he wants to go to college or not. And is more interested in getting into a social fraternity or something like that than he is to make good in some particular course of study.''
``So we found a very fine group of students developing right after the war.''

The following enrollment figures taken from the University Records bear out Professor Kokomoor's recollections; here we present the civilian enrollments during the regular term (excluding summer school) for the time periods under discussion during this chapter not previously given in Appendix A to Chapter 5.

1940--1941    3,438
1941--1942   3,239
1942--1943   2,710
1943--1944   691
1944--1945   938
1945--1946   3,216
1946--1947   7,373
1947--1948   9,787
1948--1949   11,840
1949--1950   11,709
1950--1951   11,046
1951--1952   9,937

The enrollment figures given for the Army Specialized Training Program from June 13, 1943--June 30, 1944 are 1,495 students. It is interesting to note that the 1945 University Record reveals that a two year non-degree curricula in Agriculture for Veterans is being offered. The cover for the brochure for this program even features President Tigert and Dean Hume standing in a field with two of the students in this program who are holding the bridles of several dairy cattle; so one focus of this program was on providing training in dairy farming. Another page of the Record reveals that we were offering a Veterans Refresher Course in Law. In the President's Biennial Report to the Board of Control for the period July 1, 1952--June 30, 1954, President John S. Allen, who had taken over temporarily following the death of President J. Hillis Miller, writes that

``The rising tide of enrollments which began in 1946 and reached a peak
in 1949 represented a backlog of students, mostly war veterans, whose
education had been interrupted or deferred during a period of military
service.  Since 1950, G.I. enrollments have progressively declined, but
there has been a conspicuous rise in normal freshmen enrollments.'' 

Indeed, the following figures are given for

Freshmen Enrollments during September
1950   1,791
1951   1,771
1952   2,615
1953   3,270

In [6, p. 38], the following is written about World War II at the University of Florida:

``In the fall of 1939, World War II began in Europe.  After passage of
the draft law in 1940, students began withdrawing from the University
to join the armed services.  Many more left the following year,
particularly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.
Some did not return after the Christmas vacation to take their final
examinations, but they were given credit for the work that they had 
completed. Many of the faculty also went into the armed services, and
the Alumni  Office began publishing a monthly bulletin for the University
servicemen entitled The Fighting Gators.

The University again entered into contracts to bring in troops for training. 
In February 1942, a first contingent of 750 enlisted men arrived.
They lived in  the dormitories, ate in the dining room, and attended
classes with the dwindling number of civilian students.  Large numbers
of men were also trained at the University in the Administrative
Officer's Candidate School.  In addition, the Army Air Force
established an Air Crew Training Program at the University.''

In the University of Florida Oral History Project transcript [7], Mrs. Elizabeth Simpson recalled in 1977 that during the World War II time period, our own Head Professor, Dean Thomas Simpson, had been in charge of securing a sufficient number of mathematics instructors to cover the classes taught in these training programs. With faculty leaving to fight in the War as Proctor mentioned above, this was apparently not such an easy task. Mrs. Simpson recalls in [7] that

``they had to get anybody on campus who could teach any kind of
mathematics.  They  would bring them into the program. I know Dean
Norman of education taught mathematics--plane geometry.''

President John Tigert served as president of the University of Florida from 1928, just a year after Kokomoor's arrival, until his retirement in 1947. Following an interim presidency of one month by the Dean of the College of Agriculture, Dean Harold Hume, Dr. J. Hillis Miller took over the presidency of the University and would serve from 1947 until his death in 1953. During his presidency, new dormitories for men students were constructed and the first dormitories for women students were constructed, Tigert Hall was constructed, the Century Tower was erected, the Presidential residence was constructed on its current site, and planning for a medical center was begun in 1950, to name just some of the projects begun during the Miller administration. After Miller's death, this complex would be named the J. Hillis Miller Health Sciences Center, in his honor. In [6, p. 40], Miller is described as

``...a strong willed man with an excellent sense of public
relations.  He was determined to bring national attention to the
University of Florida.  He realized that this would take both time and
money, and Miller actively courted University alumni and members of
the Legislature.''

Here is Professor Kokomoor's impression of the Miller administration from [2].
``... It's been said that Florida gained a national reputation, at least reached a national prominence, as a school academically with the presidency of J. Hillis Miller. Of course, every president has contributed to the development of the University of Florida. What do you feel about that now with Dr. Miller? So much was done while he was here. From an academic standpoint, what do you think, as far as scholarship funds available, the organization of the college, the various departments? You have any ideas on that?''
``Well, it's my feeling that it is the flow of time and the circumstances that come about along with the flow of time that really produced these things. I think that J. Hillis Miller was a good president, but anybody else could have been a good president in that day too, because circumstances and conditions were ripe for the University of Florida to expand and develop. There were signs of that not only in Florida, but in other parts of the country too, but Florida especially was very obviously in the limelight because the state was beginning to develop in many different ways. And people were coming to Florida. And when you get people to come together in a certain place, one of the first things they think about is `Do we have good schools?, Do we have a good university?' ''
`` `Can our boys and girls and so forth get what they really need and want in this place?' It all worked together. And, so, I think that probably the time was right for some of these things. It was a little bit that way when I came. There was sort of a jump. Took place before I got here, and was in the process when I came here. It leveled off and then, it came to the time when we reorganized the lower division. And there came a new impetus, don't you see? We had a lot of people working mighty hard on how to build the lower division. And that bore some valuable fruit. I think just about the time I retired---1960---a great change was taking place. I have seen tremendous changes here in the university just since I retired in 1960. And I think it's as I have said, it's the changing circumstances that bring these things about. Of course you could have leadership that would drag its feet, but I don't think we ever did have. You can have leadership sometimes that can do a whole lot to give an impetus, to speed it up. And I think we have had some of that. I think President Miller worked very hard on some of those things.''

Even though the campus became co-educational in 1947, Mrs. Nancy Moore, who received her undergraduate degree in the June 1959 commencement, has recalled that even during the 1950's certain expectations were commonly held about the female students. During her first semester, Nancy found herself being the only female student in a section of accounting, and found the Professor was not encouraging in her pursuit of this subject area. Nancy recalls that as a general expectation of those times in Florida, it was felt that girls who majored in arts and sciences would work as secretaries until they married. If need be, they could also take further work in education and then teach. Alternatively, majoring in education was a second generally encouraged career path in those times. Another anecdote from this period provides another illustration of how hard it was to break down all the traditional male bastions. There was something called the CI for College Inn on University Avenue across from the Boys Dormitories. It was a long tradition of the male students to stop off at this place for an ice cream cone. When several females dared to enter this male bastion, they were not refused service, but the men students in the CI at the time did not make the ladies feel at all welcome.

At the beginning of this chapter, we recalled that another side of Kokomoor's personality was his longstanding interest in the welfare of the student body, as manifested by his participation on campus committees concerned with religious issues. Not only was Kokomoor on the Committee for Student Religious Welfare, while that existed, he was also Chairman of the University of Florida Board of Directors for the Y.M.C.A. In this context, he was involved in the construction of the Florida Union building in 1936, which included space for the Y.M.C.A. on the second floor. This project had actually been begun with the help of William Jennings Bryan as state-wide chairman of fund raising in 1923, before Kokomoor's arrival at the University, but the Florida land boom collapse just prior to the Great Depression, caused many donors to be unable to honor their pledges, so that the construction was delayed over a decade, cf. [6, p. 34, p. 36].

We have seen in Chapter 3, that in the beginning, daily chapel attendance as well as Sunday church attendance, was required and that participation of the student body in the Y.M.C.A. was strongly suggested in the 1911 University Record. As the student body grew larger and more diverse, it is apparent that strains developed from such a homogeneous regimen. Kokomoor discusses this aspect of the maturation of the University of Florida in [2].

``Right. There's quite a bit you had to do in the organization of the Department of Religion here. I believe you've mentioned some others. Dr. Philpott [Harry Philpott] and perhaps Dr. Scudder, is it?''
``Let's discuss that a bit. That's interesting. I know, of course, they have a department here, but I've never known the organization of it, how it got started.''
``Well, this is how it got started. As I have written there on that, as I may have told you before, we had a YMCA. We called it the University of Florida YMCA. And it was housed on the campus. When I first came here, it was housed in a little old wooden building that had been sort of a mess hall for the World War I soldiers.''
``World War II, I guess?''
``No, for World War I. Yeah. And it stood about where the old cafeteria ... Is there still a cafeteria in the snack place in the back of the this old Florida Union?''
``No sir.''
``In the basement?''
``No sir, not to my knowledge.''
``Well, there used to be.''
``Not being used anyway.''
``That's where the building stood and that was the headquarters for the University of Florida YMCA when I first came to the university. I found out very shortly after I was here that the University of Florida was under fire because there were people of different religious denominations. Some of them Christian, there were Jewish people and there were people of other religions from foreign countries who couldn't see why the university budget, why the state of Florida should furnish the money to support a Young Men's Christian Association?''
``There was contention in other words, from other religious sects?''
``Right, right.''
``Because of the Christian aspect of the YMCA?''
``That's right. That's right. And so the university decided to .... Well, it was decided about that time just to abolish the University of Florida YMCA, but then we had absolutely no activity of any sort on the campus of the university. Different denominations had their headquarters out around the campus, but there was nothing to tie them together, nothing to probably steer them a little bit to help them to unify their work or anything of that sort. So it was felt there ought to be something that the university could do in that way. We didn't want to make any particular kind of a Christian out of anybody, but we did want to give them an understanding of the significance of the Christian way of life there because America was built upon that sort of thing. So, President Tigert [John J. Tigert] [ed., around 1945] to study the whole problem and make recommendations. I was chairman of that committee. I remember there were Dean Beatty [Robert C. Beatty] was one of the members of that committee.''
``Dean Beatty was what? In Arts and Sciences?''
``Well, no. Dean Beatty was the associate director of the YMCA when I came here. And when the YMCA was discontinued, they made him assistant dean of students later on .... J. Wayne Reitz, who later became president of the university, was on that committee and John Maclachlan who was the head of the sociology department was on that committee. I remember a few others. Dean Leigh [Townes R. Leigh] who was dean of the College of Pharmacy at that time. Anyway, we studied the whole thing. We consulted with the best religious leaders all over the country. And got their ideas and studied to find out what was going on at other universities.''
``What was Dr. Philpott's position at the time?'' Dr. Harry Philpott?''
``Dr. Philpott was not here at the time. He had done his graduate work in Yale University Divinity School.''
``I see.''
``And he was very shortly after that looking for a job.''
``I see.''
``He was our second man that we brought here. And Dr. Scudder was also a Yale graduate. Different departments---one the philosophy, religion, and the other religious education and so on. But, we recommended a department, a department of religion, just like you'd have a department of mathematics. Not a department that would do evangelistic work or of any sort, but a department that would set up courses and tell what Buddhism was, and Confucianism was, and what Zoroastrianism was and what have you, as well as Christianity, Judaism, and all of those other things.''
``You mentioned now that the contention from the other sects about the YMCA. Do you think this was a student-inspired department?''
``No, I don't think so at all.''
``Do you think the faculty decided it was necessary for the students?''
``No, I don't think it was student inspired. I don't think it was initiated by students. I think it was initiated by a few people who are gunning for certain things, who are trying to find something wrong, and that was a good thing, too. They really had a point and we realized that they had a point. And so, I think that's what started it. Anyway, that's what started the Department of Religion. And I think our committee did practically all of the initial work and practically all of the spade work, too, in getting that department going.''

Another interesting aspect of the publications of Dr. Kokomoor listed in Appendix C of Chapter 5 is that Kokomoor authored Historical highlights of the Gainesville Kiwanis Club, 1923--1963, published in 1979. In the Oral History Transcript [2], Kokomoor gives an interesting account of the reason for his participation in the Kiwanis organization.

``... It especially appealed to me because my interest was more
or less selfish, I would say.  It gave me a chance to make contact
with people from other religions, from the business concerns of the
city. For instance, as a teacher of mathematics, or head of the
mathematics department even, what contact would I make if I weren't
interested in that sort of thing? What contact would I make with some
businessmen who weren't particularly interested in what was going on
in the Department of Mathematics? When we both hold membership in a
civic club like the Kiwanis Club---I'm not talking about the Kiwanis
Club as if it were the only one.  There are other civic clubs can do
the same thing and do the same thing you understand.  But you get well
acquainted with a cross-section of the leaders of the city.  And that,
I thought, was a very valuable thing.''

The final aspect of [2] to consider is Kokomoor's discussion of his fifteen years service on the Board of Student Publications, with which the dedication of the 1939 issue of the Seminole Yearbook is connected.

``Right. Well, let's go back to one other extracurricular activity. You were involved in so much over the years. This period of fifteen years when you were chairman of the Board of Student Publications. I imagine it was quite interesting.''
``Oh, yes. I spent many a long night with the Board of Student Publications.
``Back in our day, when I was chairman of the Board of Student Publications, every student paid a certain fee. Out of that fee, there was so much for The University of Florida Seminole, the yearbook. And there was so much for the student publications, of Student Publications. We kept it very closely budgeted, and within budget. When I took over, it was in deeply in debt and that was one of the orders that I had when I was appointed as chairman of the committee by the president. And he said, `I want you to get that back on the solid financial standing,' and we really had to fight to come out even on it, which we did, but made a lot of student enemies by having to do that. We did put out a yearbook that all students had paid for. And therefore, each student came around and got a yearbook. Every student could get his picture in it ....''
``... And so, we had on the Board of Student Publications back then ... three members of the faculty who usually voted, not counting the chairman, and three members of the student body.''
``And you could have a split between the students on one side and faculty on the other side. And we often had some very hot debates and great disagreements and so forth. And some of the students got the idea that the students of the Board of Student Publications were on one side and the faculty on the Board of Student Publications were on the other side, which was never the case actually. But they publicized that, talked it over the campus and they got it to be believed. I had our secretary make a check back for I don't know how many years, in fact clear back to when I had begun as chairman of the Board of Student Publications, as to how faculty members voted and how student members voted on every issue that came up. We didn't find but one or two instances in which the students all voted one way and the faculty all voted one way and the chairman had to break the tie. Those were on little old silly questions as to whether we adjourn now or whether we stay until one o'clock in the morning to finish up the work or something like that.''
``... So, other than a period of fifteen years, anything else besides yearbooks and The Alligator? What else was involved with this job?''
``Oh, little things that'd come up, you know. For instance, one time the president called me along about one o'clock or midnight, I guess it was. The Alligator, incidentally, came out once a week then and it was the full-sized thing.''
``Just a regular newspaper then.''
``Yeah. A regular newspaper size came out in the middle of the week, and I remember one time the president called me. This is just one incident. There were a lot of them like this, but somebody had told him that there was a certain article that was going to be published in The Alligator that was violently critical of the governor, and something the governor had done recently and maybe the legislature, too. And, of course, back in that day, the university was almost entirely dependent on the legislature for all the money that it had to operate with.''
``What time are we speaking about now, sir?''
``We're speaking about 1927 when I first came here to I suppose, 1945 or so. All of these government grants and all of these grants by private foundations and so forth, there was very little of that that came the way of the University of Florida back in that day. So we had to depend upon the appropriation of the legislature for the money that we had to operate the university with. Well, Dr. Tigert called me and said that some legislator had told him that they were going to publish as we had a kind of a militant editor at that particular time, and, so I went down, dressed: I had been in bed. I dressed and went down to The Gainesville Sun office that published The Alligator at that time for us. Sat down and talked to this boy about this thing for an hour and a half, tried to point out to him that he was really doing the university more harm than good by publishing that. It would accomplish just the opposite because he had antagonized legislators and antagonized the governor, and maybe they would react in that sort of a way. It was a little hard for me to see that they would, but the president thought they would. And so, I went on home. He hadn't said `I'm going to do it,' or anything, but then when The Alligator came out, he hadn't published it. Things like that, you know, I ran into a whole lot of things like that.''

Now let us turn our attention to some of the new faculty faces on the scenes during the 1950's that we have not discussed in Chapter 5. An interesting aspect of this decade for me, is that there were three faculty members at the University of Florida, who were all doctoral students of Professor Leonard M. Blumenthal, the leading light at the University of Missouri-Columbia [whom the writer, as a young assistant professor in the late 1970's, came to meet during Blumenthal's mellowed out retirement years. Interestingly, Blumenthal had a deep love for the Classics, just like our own Head Professor Simpson. In his heyday, Blumenthal would intimidate the younger men on the small Missouri faculty by reciting appropriate Greek and Latin quotations during faculty debates.] These professors, David Ellis, Theral Moore, and Jerry Gaddum, were not all at the University of Missouri, or on the staff at Florida, during the same time period, however.

During the time I was at the University of Missouri, from 1976--1987, the older staff members still recalled Ellis among the Blumenthal students for his brilliance. David Owen Ellis even stands out among the entries in the 1955 American Men of Science, for he is careful to list his general area of interest as ``Modern Mathematics'', rather than just ``Mathematics'' like everybody else. Ellis was born in Springfield, Missouri on November 9, 1925. He received the A.B. from the University of Missouri-Columbia in 1946, then had a teaching assistantship in the Chemistry Department at Missouri during 1945. He worked as an electrochemist at the Pratt and Whitney Corporation during 1946, then returned to Missouri with the rank of Assistant Instructor in the Department of Mathematics from 1946--1948 at which time he received the masters degree in mathematics. He held the rank of Instructor in the Mathematics Department and also held a Gregory Fellowship [I was surprised to find that these graduate student fellowships went back such a long ways] during 1949--1950 and in 1950 received the Ph.D. at Missouri. Ellis came to Florida as an Assistant Professor from 1950--1952, and was promoted to Associate Professor in 1952. He left Florida just before Theral Moore arrived, going to the Institute for Air Weapons Research with the title of Senior Mathematician and Consultant. Professor Ellis was rather overweight, and apparently died of a heart attack at Clarkson University when informed that the building in which he was working was on fire, even though the fire was small and easily extinguished. [This was remembered by the old guard at Missouri as well as by Theral Moore.] It is interesting that corresponding to his description of general area of interest as ``Modern Mathematics'', Ellis lists as membership the Mathematical Society of France, and describes his research interests in [8] on a more detailed level as lattice theory, distance geometry, general topology, abstract algebra, applications of Boolean algebra to digital computers, geometry of radiation therapy. While here, Professor Ellis directed the doctoral dissertations of Randall Conkling, H. D. Sprinkle, Alfred Lehman, and Robert Bagley. In the Mathematical Reviews Author Index, 1940--1959, we find that Ellis has over thirty publications, including papers in the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics of Oxford, the Acta Mathematica, and the Duke Mathematics Journal.

The second of the Blumenthal students, Dr. Theral Orvis Moore has been on the staff here since 1955 and is thus the only faculty member remaining from the Kokomoor Chairmanship who is still on the faculty. Moore was born in Emerson, Arkansas, and even has a grandmother who was born in President Clinton's home town of Hope, Arkansas. Moore first went to college in Magnolia, Arkansas, then received the B.A. from the University of Arkansas in 1949. He taught for a year in the high school [Moore's teaching assignment consisted of eighth grade arithmetic, two business mathematics, two geometries, one second year algebra, and one period supervising a study hall] at Warren, Arkansas [and thus had a keen interest in Sledd's memoirs of teaching at Arkadelphia], then returned to the University of Arkansas and took the masters degree in 1951. Moore did further graduate work in mathematics at the University of Missouri, receiving the Ph.D. in 1955. Theral has recalled for me that he had followed but never overlapped with David Ellis, first as a graduate student at Missouri, then as a young faculty member at Florida. Indeed, Dr. Kokomoor even assigned Moore to the same desk and chair which Ellis had used while he was on the staff here prior to Moore's arrival; accordingly, the desk chair was quite commodious. Moore recalls that the department hired three people that year, including Alton Butson who left for Miami University after four or so years. Moore talked with me about his recollections of looking for his first job in the mid-1950's. Money was apparently tight around the whole country, not just in Florida. At the University of Oklahoma, Moore was told that tenure track offers were not made without an interview, but that no funds were available for an interview. If he would come as a temporary assistant professor, then after one year, when he would obviously be available for an interview, he would be given a tenure track appointment. In connection with his application at the University of Alabama, Theral was surprised one day to receive a telephone call from a staff member of the University of Missouri Business School, an Alabama alumni, who explained that he had been contacted by the Chairman of the Alabama Mathematics Department and asked to interview Moore in connection with a possible tenure-track job at Alabama. At Florida, Moore suspects that because Ellis had preceded him at Missouri, then at Florida, that the Florida Department assessed Moore by questioning Ellis. Theral received only a telegram from Dr. Kokomoor promising a tenure track Assistant Professorship subject to funding approval. Not quite sure what to make of the definitiveness of such an offer, Dr. Moore consulted Professor W. Roy Utz, another one of the old guard at Missouri when I was there, and the Missouri faculty assured Theral that this was a genuine offer, so Moore came to the department in 1955 as we indicated above. We have earlier commented that Simpson and Kokomoor had the formal title of Head Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy. When Theral was considering joining the department, he went to the Library at the University of Missouri to consult the Florida catalogue. There he found, for example, that John T. Moore was listed with the title of Associate Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy. As reported in Chapter 5, Moore went back to his records to find out about what the teaching loads had been like here in the 1950's. He found that during his first semester, he had been teaching 17 hours, including the graduate topology course [recall Dr. Kokomoor speaking of topology above in the University of Florida Oral History transcript [2]], a section of calculus, a section of basic mathematics (unified trigonometry, analytic geometry and calculus), and two sections of business mathematics. During this time period, Dr. Moore was asked to teach topology a good deal of the time, and this resulted in his writing a well known textbook Elementary General Topology, Prentice-Hall, 1964. An amusing Blumenthal story Theral told me is the following; during his early years at Florida, while teaching the 17 hours per semester, Theral received a letter from Professor Blumenthal, who taught a lot less than 17 hours per week, suggesting that Theral write up his dissertation results and that they publish this as a joint paper. Moore replied to Blumenthal that with his heavy teaching load and problems with eyesight, that he felt it would be more appropriate for Professor Blumenthal to write this work up for publication. Theral recalls also that Kokomoor's title as Head Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy was more than just a formality, in those times prior to the transferral of astronomy instruction to the Physics Department. Theral recalls that once something happened to the Astronomy Building and Kokomoor received a telephone call asking what he wanted done with the telescope mount in connection with this damage.

One custom of the 1950's and 1960's that Professors Moore, Sigmon, Nelson and our Ph.D. alumni Professor John Kenelly of Clemson have recalled for me is the famous beginning of the semester meeting at which the teaching schedule was given out. Apparently, then the Department Chairmen would just get the student enrollment figures on Friday or Saturday, then draw up the final teaching schedule at that time. On Sunday afternoon, there would be a faculty meeting with the graduate students also attending, and Dr. Kokomoor would give out the teaching assignments at that time, then the seminar times could also be easily arranged as everybody was on hand. Remember earlier in this chapter, we learned that Kokomoor had worked for several years at carpentry to earn money for college, and alumni press releases found in the Archives indicate that Kokomoor enjoyed doing carpentry around the home. Dr. Kenelly has recalled that Kokomoor designed some kind of metal board apparatus which he used in drawing up the teaching schedule during his chairmanship. In comparison, my colleagues at the University of Missouri have told me that even as late as 1975--1976, the academic year just prior to my arrival in 1976 as a fresh assistant professor, the longstanding custom had been to not give out the teaching assignments completely until the very first day of classes. My collaborator at Missouri, Professor John Beem, recalls being told as a new faculty member to come in very early on Monday morning to get his teaching assignment, in case he happened to be assigned an 8 o'clock class.

The third of the Missouri graduates, Dr. Jerry Gaddum, was the son of the Professor in charge of Man in the Physical Sciences in the University College. He also had President J. Wayne Reitz as his boy scout troop leader. Unfortunately, Dr. Gaddum died at the early age of 39 and his wife Maxine later had a memorial plaque erected to his memory which now stands in a little pedestrian garden beside Walker Hall, not far from Carleton Auditorium.



8-16-24         2-14-64


Earlier in this chapter, we quoted Dr. Kokomoor describing how the Department of Mathematics came to introduce statistics courses on campus as we mentioned in Chapter 5. The 1963--1964 University Record reveals that since 1954, there had been a Southern Regional Graduate Summer Session in Statistics which rotated among the University of Florida, North Carolina State College, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, and Oklahoma State University. Obviously, at a land grant state university which is also an agricultural experiment station, there are statisticians. But, in fact, we learn in the 1963--1964 Record that prior to this academic year, there has been no separate Department of Statistics major at the University of Florida, however, a Department of Statistics program with its own curriculum was being formulated, in the College of Agriculture.

On the other hand, as I have mentioned in Chapter 5, we have a complete collection of all of the Ph.D. and masters theses written by our graduates and the Ph.D. students are even required to provide a biographical sketch with their thesis. Thus we learn the following about Dr. Ernest Lytle, who received his Ph.D. in 1956 with advisor Professor H. A. Meyer and thesis title The Determination of Some Distributions for Which the Midrange is an Efficient Estimator of the Mean, this title itself a certain proof that graduate statistics existed in our department in the mid-50's:

Ernest James Lytle, Jr. was born on June 28, 1913 at
East Lake, Florida. He graduated from Ocala High School in 1930 and
entered the University of Florida where he held the Competitive State
Senatorial Scholarship for four years.  His activities included campus
politics, captaincy of the southeastern conference championship swimming
team, monitorship in Thomas Hall and advanced ROTC. His undergraduate
studies were in mathematics and economics, for which he received the
B.S. degree with honors in 1935.  He received his M.A. degree in the
same fields in 1940. He served in the Army Coast Guard Artillery from
1941 to 1945 and returned to active service in 1950, serving in Korea.
He was returned to inactive status in  1952, where he presently holds a
Major's commission in the Adjutant General's Corps.

He has been a teacher and principal in the Marion County high schools and 
for two years was assistant in research at the Statistical Laboratory
of the University of Florida, where he concentrated on research in the
Monte Carlo method.  At present he is instructor in the mathematics
department of the University of Florida.  He was elected to Kappa
Delta Pi (education), Kappa Phi Kappa (education) and Florida Blue Key
(leadership) fraternities.

Now if this doesn't seem to indicate the existence of a Statistics Laboratory in our Department in the 1950's, I don't know what else would. On the other hand, when I talked with people who had been here during that time, like Dr. John Kenelly of Clemson and Dr. Richard Yates, now retired to Colorado, or asked several current Professors in the Department of Statistics whom I know, or even asked Professor Samuel Proctor, the resident expert in University of Florida History, none of them had any recollection of a Statistics Laboratory either in Walker Hall, or anyplace else on campus. This Lab is also never mentioned in any of the catalogues of this time period. When I wrote to Dr. Lytle, who is on the Walker Hall Review active mailing list, I learnt from Mrs. Lytle that unfortunately, Dr. Lytle had died in 1988, and thus would be unable to help me to obtain information about this facility. However, Mrs. Lytle passed on the material I had sent Dr. Lytle, to one of his sons, Dr. Steven Lytle, who happens to be an Associate Professor of Health Sciences at the University of Central Florida specializing in computers and their application to the health care industry. Dr. Lytle and I had several exchanges of correspondence by e-mail. Here is his e-mail message of April 30, 1994:

``I was born in Gainesville in 1951 at AG Hospital. We lived there until 1956
when we moved to New York for a year.  My Dad took a job at IBM right
after he finished his Ph.D.  I am a 5th generation Floridian and my
parents were both Floridians too. We must have been like the Beverly
Hillbillys moving to NY State! We moved back to Gainesville after one
year.  I remember the Stat lab very clearly. I don't know what it was
called officially.  It was located in one of those temporary type
buildings that become so permanent on university campuses.
It was next door to a sink hole, I remember that very clearly. 
My Mother would drive me there almost every afternoon to pick up my
Dad from work.  Usually, we were early, and I would throw rocks
in the pond or we would go inside and I would play with IBM cards.
The cards had stripes on the tops and came in all colors.  I am
to this day known as an authority on computers and information systems
in the health care industry.  I guess it rubbed off.
I understand, but don't know if its true, that the Stat lab was really
the precursor to what we think of today as the regional data centers,
such as NERDC.''

So the puzzle is resolved by the fact that the Statistical Laboratory was not in Walker Hall at all, but was rather in a group of temporary buildings, no longer standing, close to the sinkhole which is named Dairy Pond on the campus map, now between McCarthy and the Marston Science Library. Later in the spring semester, Professor Kermit Sigmon recalled for me that when he came to Florida in 1963 as a graduate student and up until 1986 when the Marston Science Library was opened, that the mathematics books were scattered all around the campus, with the statistics material, especially, being contained in a library in the Agricultural Building, McCarthy Hall. Finally, when I was chatting with Professor Charles Nelson in early June of 1994 about the olden times (he joined the staff in 1966), I tried a shot in the dark and asked Chuck if he remembered the Statistical Laboratory. Well, I finally found a current faculty member who recalled seeing this facility and who could indeed confirm Steve Lytle's memory that it had been in a temporary building by the Dairy Pond sinkhole. So, this definitely established the involvement of our own department, prior to the formation of the modern Department of Statistics at the University of Florida in 1965, not only in offering graduate courses in Statistics, but also in operating some sort of a campus-wide consulting facility in Statistics. Another piece of evidence for the existence of this facility, although not its location, over the course of several decades, came earlier in April when during a long and tedious faculty meeting in the Walker Hall Lounge, my attention wandered from the topic at hand, and in so doing, I looked in the book case next to my chair and to my pleasant surprise, discovered that the department possesses a copy in the Walker Hall Lounge Library of the 1955 American Men of Science. [This was extremely helpful to me since none of these references of that vintage are contained on campus except at the Medical School Library. The oldest thing shelved in the public access area of Smathers Library is a 1986 Who's Who in America, for example.] This reference contains the following entry for Dr. Herbert Albert Meyer. His broad area of interest is listed as Mathematical Statistics. He was born in Lamont, Iowa on November 4, 1905. He received the B.S. at Des Moines in 1926, which might perhaps now be called Drake University. He then went to the University of Iowa and received the M.S. in 1927 and the Ph.D. in 1929 in the Department of Mathematics. During 1927--1928 he held the rank of Fellow in the Department of Mathematics at Iowa. After receiving his Ph.D., Dr. Meyer served as Professor of Mathematics at Hanover College from 1929--1943. Then during World War II days, he moved to the University of Indiana, with the title of Acting Professor, Army Specialized Training Program. In 1946, Professor Meyer came to the University of Florida and lists his title as Professor and Director of Statistics Laboratory. He lists his research interests as actuarial mathematics and probability. During his time on the faculty, he directed 10 masters theses and the doctoral dissertations of Landis S. Gephart, Ernest G. Lytle, and Francis G. Hatfield. I have spoken with Professors Ronald Randles and Richard Schouffer of the Department of Statistics on campus, and those professors inform me that Dr. Meyer had a fine reputation within statistical circles for his work. During the academic year 1954--1955, Professor Meyer was President of the University of Florida Chapter of the scientific honorary society Sigma Xi.

Also involved in the Statistics graduate education was a second faculty member of our department, Professor Dudley Eugene South. South was born in Creston, Ohio on August 31, 1900. He received the A.B. at the College of Wooster in 1922, then served as an Instructor of Mathematics at this college from 1922--1924. South was at the University of Kentucky with the rank of Instructor from 1924--1928. During this same time period, he also received the masters degree from the University of Michigan in 1927, then held the rank of Assistant Professor at Kentucky, while he must have done further graduate study during the summers; recall we have mentioned this method of advancement in Chapter 5. For South received his Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of Michigan in 1939 and then was promoted to Associate Professor at Kentucky in 1939 and to the rank of Professor in 1943. During the academic year 1942--1943, Professor South visited the Florida State College for Women in Tallahassee (now F.S.U.), and left Kentucky for our department in 1952. During the 1950's, South supervised 10 masters theses in our department.

A second area of applicable mathematics in the Department during this time period was the theory of elasticity. Here we had Professor Charles Basel Smith, who was so secretive about his first name, that none of the Ph.D. recipients I have corresponded with or spoken to had any idea that Professor Basel Smith's given first name was Charles. Unfortunately, C. Basel Smith was apparently not inclined to fill out questionnaires from publishers, so we do not have any entry for him in the 1955 American Men of Science. From the University Catalogues, we learn that Prof. Smith joined the Department in 1946 with the rank of Associate Professor and had received the Ph.D. from Wisconsin. However, we also find C. Basel Smith on the Master's Degree List as our tenth masters student in 1935 with Dr. Thomas Simpson as supervisor and title A Study of Non-analytic Functions. Now the masters candidates are not required to bind a bibliographical sketch in with the departmental copy of their theses, but by chance, Basel Smith is the exception to the rule, so we gain the following early information about him, but about none of the other masters graduates.

                 ``Biographical Sketch  

The writer was born in Marlinton, West Virginia, on November 21, 1911.  He
attended an elementary school in Fort Pierce, Florida, to which he
moved in November, 1916.  He was graduated from Fort Pierce High
School in 1928.

The undergraduate studies of the writer were pursued in the College
of Education of the University of Florida, and he received his Bachelor
of Science in Education degree in June, 1935.

Graduate studies were taken at the University of Florida from 1933 to 1935
in two winter sessions. While an undergraduate the writer was a member
of Phi Eta Sigma, freshman scholastic fraternity, Kappa Delta Pi,
honorary Education fraternity, and Phi Kappa Phi, scholastic fraternity.''

Now this sketch suggested investigating something which a graduate of the University of Illinois in 1941 with the B.A. in mathematics (and several years later the Masters) had told me; during the Great Depression, the male students with interests in mathematics at the University of Illinois tended to major in secondary education since they could get jobs as high school teachers, thus the small group of mathematics majors at Illinois consisted primarily of female students, [9]. I had hoped to check this at the University of Florida by reading the other biographical sketches of our masters graduates from the 1930's, but was thwarted in this aim since only Dr. Smith had provided us with this sketch in the departmental copy of his masters thesis.

The first doctoral dissertation awarded in our department, is to Alvin Jewel Owens in June, 1950 with supervisor C. Basel Smith and dissertation title, Effect of a Rigid Elliptic Disk on the Stress Distribution in an Orthotropic Plate. Consultation of this thesis reveals that the mathematics which Smith was studying concerned questions which actually arose when one studied the mathematics of sawing tree trunks in order to make lumber boards. This thesis also reveals that in those times, there was an institute in Madison, Wisconsin, the United States Forest Products Laboratory, which studied mathematical and physical questions which arose in sawing trees to make lumber, and that Dr. Smith had done work this institute. For one of the references in Owens' thesis is

``C. B. Smith,
Effect of Elliptic or Circular Holes on the Stress Distribution in Plates of Wood or Plywood Considered as Orthotropic Materials, Madison, Wisconsin: United States Forest Products Laboratory, Report No. 1510, 1944.''

Fortunately, when Dr. and Mrs. Owens showed up on campus on December 29, 1995 after not having been in Gainesville since 1951, Ayla Anthony in the Mathematics Office directed them to my door, Little 414, and I happened to be one of the few people working in Little Hall that day, so close to the New Years Holiday. The Owens wondered what had become of the faculty they had known in the late 1940's, especially C. Basel Smith and Herbert Meyer. Thanks to my having already worked several years on the historical project, I was able to tell them even more than is written in this book. Both Owens had taken some educational work in Iowa, as had Professor Herbert Meyer, so they recall the Meyers being very helpful in their settling into life in Gainesville. The Biographical Sketch in Owens' thesis reveals the following:

``The author was born September 26, 1918 at Campbell, Missouri. In 1936
he was graduated from Central High School, Cape Girardeau, Missouri. He
was graduated in 1940 from Southeast Missouri State College with the degree
of Bachelor of Arts.  He attended the banquet given for the ten highest
ranking freshmen and also the banquets for the upper five per cent of the
Junior and Senior classes given by the American Association of University
Professors.  Upon graduation, he received an appointment as a graduate
assistant, Department of Physics, State University of Iowa.  The degree
of Master of Science was conferred in June 1942.  He then accepted a
position at the Burnside Laboratory of E. I. du Pont de Nemours, Inc. He
joined the Navy in 1943, and was graduated from the Naval Aerial
Navigation School, Coral Gables, Florida.  He was an instructor and
later served a year and a half in the Pacific, and was promoted to
the rank of lieutenant. After the war, he returned to study at the State
University of Iowa.  In 1948 he was initiated into the Iowa Chapter of
the Society of the Sigma Xi as an associate member.  In the fall of 1948,
he transferred to the University of Florida.  He held a Graduate Fellowship
for the year 1949--1950.  He is a member of the Mathematical Association of
America and the American Mathematical Society.''

Dr. Owens recalled playing tennis with his advisor. After one year in an off-campus appartment, the Owens were able to move to the Flavet (= Florida Veteran) Village, which was helpful since these were fairly inexpensive (maybe $29 per month?). Owen's office was probably in one of the temporary buildings, but he recalls the departmental office, and Kokomoor's office as being in Peabody. Of course, Dean Simpson was in Language Hall (now Anderson) in those times. Owens recalls Benton Hall (torn down to make way for Grinter) as being a little dilapidated. Since Mrs. Owens had her degree in Chemistry, she was able to work at the agricultural experiment station while they were in Gainesville. The Owens' offer in our department included a smaller teaching load than that which he had at Iowa and also a much greater salary.

The year 1950 marked a transitional time in our institution. The Owens were very fond of Gainesville. On graduation, Kokomoor told Owens that he would like to have him join the faculty, but told Owens to write for other offers so that he could offer him an appropriate salary. Soon Owens had an offer from Alabama Polytechnic (now Auburn). He came back to Kokomoor with the news. Kokomoor said,

``All right, come back to the office by noon, I will have an offer for

Owens came back at noon, but Kokomoor was not there. Owens spoke with the secretary, who telephoned Kokomoor, then told Owens to go back to his office and await a telephone call from Kokomoor in a little while. Finally at 5:00 p.m., Kokomoor called Owens, and told him that Dean Simpson and he had spent all day in the office of a new Vice-President who was determined not to hire any of our own doctorates. Even though Owens had taken his bachelors and masters in Missouri and Iowa, then had military experience from World War II, Simpson and Kokomoor could not budge the Vice-President. The absolute power of the chairman had slipped a notch, and Owens found himself going to Auburn instead of remaining in Gainesville.

A bit later, Owens found himself at the University of Missouri - Rolla. After a year, dissatisfied with the academic salary level, Owens went to work for General Dynamics in San Diego. Later, he and several others founded their own company, which was later sold. Now he is engaged in Owens Associates, still located in San Diego.

During the time period of 1948 through 1966, Professor Smith supervised 13 masters theses and 12 doctoral theses, including that of Robert Blake, who was also on our staff during the Kokomoor years. Dr. John Kenelly had Prof. Smith as his instructor in complex variables and Dr. Mary Neff, who worked under Prof. David Ellis, but then had Prof. Blake as dissertation supervisor after Ellis left Florida, recalls studying elasticity theory and tensor analysis from Professor Smith.

Professor Jane M. Day, now Professor of Mathematics at San Jose State University received the M.A. degree in January, 1961 with Professor Smith as supervisor and title A Study of the Location of the Zeroes of Certain Complex Polynomials With An Application. Professor Day sent me the following recollections of Smith in an e-mail message of August 24, 1994:

``C. B. Smith was my Masters thesis adviser. I had taken several
courses from him and thought he was an excellent teacher. He collected
homework every day and graded it himself. He was the first college
math instructor I'd had who did that, and the first one for whom I
worked regularly! I am still very appreciative of the discipline he
instilled in me, and my teaching style has always included collecting
some HW regularly and grading it myself.''

Fortunately, our twelfth doctoral graduate, Dr.Emmet Low, who received his degree in June 1953 with supervisor Professor C. Basel Smith and title, Vertical Loading on a Straight Boundary of an Orthotropic Plate wrote me a long letter dated June 20, 1994 which provides a personal glimpse of C. B. Smith.

``I must say the mathematical background I brought from Stetson was weak and I
became discouraged with trying to do the level of work expected.  I was in
Basel Smith's Complex Variables and Theory of Elasticity.  The first
was fairly easy, but the Theory of Elasticity was populated with
several doctoral students, several faculty, and one master's
student---me---and I felt over my head. We were using some things I had
never heard of and I felt lost sometimes.  We rotated the presentations
of sections and, as the junior member of the group, I felt uncomfortable
making my presentations to persons much further along than I
was.  When I wanted to drop it, Dr. Smith gave me some good support
and encouragement and I had no real trouble with it. 

... Dr. Smith was one of the best professor I ever had.  He was
well organized and gave beautiful lectures.  I believe he had taken
his Ph.D. at Wisconsin and had worked for the U.S. Forest Products
Laboratory in Wisconsin prior to coming back to Florida and continued
to do research for them and the Office of Naval Research. I remember
coming into his office one day and he was very excited. Using the
mathematics associated with the theory of elasticity, he had just
developed a way to make plywood with an increased shear strength
over regular plywood.  I note that all commercial plywood is made
with an odd number of layers placed at right angles alternately
to accommodate possible warpage due to moisture content changes.
His method used an even number of laminations placed at predetermined
angles, but not at right angles.  One of its potential uses was in 
the building of hulls of mine sweepers which could have no ferrous
metals in them.

Dr. Smith had a lovely wife, a son and a daughter and was a devoted
husband and father.  I remember his telling me about his years as a
student at the University where he was a champion tennis player.  When
I was involved with passing the German and French language proficiency
tests, he told me about his dating a girl who was a German major while
he was studying to pass his German tests.  He laughingly noted that
the relationship did not last long after he passed the tests.''

A second faculty member in the elasticity theory group was Robert Blake. Now Blake received the 15th masters degree from our department in May, 1945 with supervisor Professor Cecil Phipps and topic Circular Arrangements and the 9th Ph.D. from our department in January, 1953 with supervisor Professor C. Basel Smith and topic The Solution of Certain Problems of Plane Strain in Laminated Orthotropic Structures by Means of Polynomials. Blake's Biographical Note in his thesis reads as follows:

``Robert George Blake was born in Cornell, Illinois, on May 4, 1906.  
He is the son of Fred and Ethel Hunt Blake.  He graduated from Cornell High
School in 1924 and received a Junior College Diploma from Illinois
State Normal University in 1926.  He has received from the University
of Florida the degrees of Bachelor of Arts in Education in 1938 and
Master of Arts in 1945.  He is a member of Phi Kappa Phi.  He has
taught in the public schools of Livingston County, Illinois, and of
Leon, Hernando, Alachua, and Lake Counties in Florida. He came to the
University of Florida in 1943 as Instructor of Mathematics, War
Training Program, and was promoted to the rank of Assistant Professor
of Mathematics in 1949.  In 1929  he married Genevieve Grelle of
Brooksville, Florida. They have one daughter, Nancy.''

Blake's entry in the 1955 American Men of Science re-emphasizes his long teaching career in the public schools of Florida---this was from 1926 until 1943, when Theral Moore recalls as these documents indicate, that Blake came here during World War II to teach in the armed forces instructional program run by Dean Simpson as discussed earlier in this chapter. Moore recalls Blake telling him that Blake taught in Brooksville and Tallahassee in Florida. For a time, Blake and Moore were office mates in Walker Hall.

A third faculty member in Applied Mathematics on the staff during the Kokomoor chairmanship, who happens also to be listed in the 1955 American Men of Science, is Professor Florence Virginia Rohde. It is interesting that our current faculty member Professor Jed Keesling went to junior high school in Gainesville, while his father was on the engineering faculty, and Jed recalls meeting Dr. Virginia Rohde at a church which he attended at the time and hearing her play the violin during church services. Rohde was born in Davenport, Iowa on May 15, 1918. She received the A.B. from Iowa State Teachers College in 1939, then the M.M. in Music from Rochester in 1940. She taught public school in Iowa from 1940--1942, then went to the University of Miami in Ohio, receiving the A.M. in 1945. After that she taught at Ohio State as an assistant in mathematics during the academic year 1945--1946. Rohde then went to the University of Kentucky with the rank of Instructor in Mathematics and Astronomy and received the Ph.D. there in 1950. Rohde came to Florida in 1950 with the rank of Instructor in 1952 and was promoted to Assistant Professor in 1952. Keesling recalls that Rohde taught a course in astronomy while in our department. She is currently an emeritus professor at Mississippi State. In the 1955 American Men of Science, she listed her research interests as engineering mathematics, deflection of beams, elasticity.

Professor Robert Meacham was another member of the Department of Mathematics during the Kokomoor chairmanship who specialized in Applied Mathematics. Meacham was born in Moultrie, Georgia on May 1, 1920. He attended Southwestern College in Memphis (now Rhodes College), receiving the B.S. in 1943, according to the 1955 American Men of Science. He was in the U. S. Navy during World War II, serving as a radar, torpedo, and gunnery officer on a submarine in the Pacific. In January, 1946, Meacham entered Brown University and received the Sc. M. in 1948 and the Ph.D. in 1949 in Applied Mathematics. He then went to Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie-Mellon University) where he held the rank of Instructor during 1949--50 and the rank of Assistant Professor during 1950--54. By the spring of 1954, the Meachams had decided to return to the South. Professor Meacham has written me the following in an e-mail messsage of Sept. 2, 1995 concerning his decision to leave Carnegie Tech:

``The Dean at Carnegie Tech proceeded to hire a math department chairman
without involving members of the department. The new chairman was
Walter Leighton, who, at the time, was in charge of the mathematics
section at OSRD (an Air Force research group). Six or seven
mathematicians left Carnegie Tech within the next two years after
Leighton came on the scene. The others had worked with Leighton before
and did not want to stay at C.I.T. with him in charge. I did not know
Leighton myself, but this seemed to be a good time to leave
C.I.T. since we had already decided to come back South.

Katherine and I were delighted to receive Kokomoor's offer to come to
the University of Florida. We continued to be very happy there.''

In this same e-mail message, Meacham, a Presbyterian, described his decision to leave the University of Florida and relocate at Florida Presbyterian College as the founding member of the department of Mathematics at that new institution:

In August 1959 I was invited to come to St. Petersburg to
participate in a curriculum conference at this new college. Dean John
M. Bevan asked me to set up the mathematics program. He had already
invited me to be the founding professor of mathematics, but I
declined. At the curriculum conference I met the others who had signed
on as founding faculty. The program we set up was so exciting that we
agreed in August 59 to join the others a year later, when the
founding freshman class would arrive.

Consequently the entire year 59--60 was my last year at
U. Fla....''

Dr. Meacham would serve for the next thirty years as chair of that department at Florida Presbyterian (now Eckerd College) in St. Petersburg, until his retirement in 1990.

Because of his background in Applied Mathematics, Dr. Meacham was also able to help our faculty with consulting work at Patrick Air Force Base during his years at the University of Florida. He wrote the following to me in an e-mail message of September 4, 1995:

``One of my contributions to the department was to help about five
professors to get summer or longer jobs at the rocket program at
Patrick Air Force Base. A former graduate student of mine at Carnegie
Tech contacted me about working for the Mathematical Services
department of RCA Service Co. I signed on as a consultant, beginning
in June 1957. I put my friend in touch with Andrew Sobczyk,
Gaines Lang, Al Butson, and Robert Ackerson. (Ackerson went with RCA Service
Co. after two summers, and so he was not involved in the grousing
about things at U. Fla.   in 1959--60.)''

Professor Jed Keesling had mentioned Professor Andrew Sobczyk to me as a faculty member from the Kokomoor era, but Sobczyk did not bother with an entry in the 1955 American Men of Science. Thus apart from the letter from our Ph.D graduate Dr. Jan Andrus quoted later on in this chapter, I had no specific information about Sobczyk:

``I regarded Andy as about the most stimulating member of the
mathematics department. Nearly every year he led us in a faculty
seminar on one topic or another. He was more widely known than any
other professor. I believe that he stayed one year after Maxfield was
appointed chairman. Andy arranged things that year so that he commuted
between Gainesville and Miami, teaching courses at the University of
Miami on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, and teaching on Friday and
Monday at the University of Florida. After that year, I believe, he
accepted an appointment at Clemson University.''

Another senior faculty member who was recruited to Florida in 1948 and produced a number of masters and doctoral students during this time period, was Professor William Robert Hutcherson. He was born in Glassgow, Kentucky on December 20, 1898 and received the A.B. degree from the University of Kentucky in 1922 and the A.M. from this institution in 1924. Then Hutcherson followed the same career path that we have encountered previously, taking further graduate work during the summers at Chicago during 1925--1927 and in 1929. During this time period, Hutcherson was on the faculty at Berea College. Like Kokomoor, Hutcherson was interested in Methodist church work, himself serving as a lay Methodist minister. Hutcherson first served as head, department of the junior high school at Berea from 1924--1926, then from 1926--1928, he had the title of associate professor of physics, astronomy and mathematics at Berea. Then from 1928--1948, he was simply in the mathematics department, serving as Professor and Head of this department from 1929--1948. During this time period, Hutcherson was able to study at Cornell University as a Fellow in 1930--1931, receiving his Ph.D. in 1931. In the 1955 American Men of Science, he describes his research area as involution in algebraic geometry, which correlates well with the titles of his research articles. His 1960 Ph.D. student Dr. John Kenelly has described this area in more up-to-date terms as geometry. [Kenelly's thesis title is An Involution of Period Seventeen.] In 1942, Hutcherson secured an appointment as a University and U. S. Government Fellow at Brown University. He finally left Berea College in 1948, apparently serving as an Acting Associate Professor at Florida and then spending a year at Northwestern State College in Louisiana with the rank of Professor, then returning to Florida in 1949 with the rank of Professor. Professor Kenelly recalled the following anecdote about his advisor in an e-mail message of April 13, 1994:

``Another story about Hutcherson.  He took me to Michigan State to the summer 
AMS meeting to present my first geometry paper.  (and be introduced to all his
geometry colleagues---several which resulted in potential jobs
for me)  There was a fragmented nation wide train strike while we were
there and we had to return in bits and pieces from Michigan to
Florida.  There were numerous interruptions and overnight stops in the
Midwest and KY and TN.  Everywhere we went, Hutcherson had relatives
and we were picked up, hosted, fed, and housed at almost every stop
along the way.''

While we are dealing with Professor Kenelly's recollections, we will jump ahead of ourselves a bit in the order of this chapter, and tell about the bull pen in Walker Hall for the graduate students, as Kenelly insisted that I do. Professor Kermit Sigmon also recalls this facility still being in use when he was a graduate student beginning in 1963. Prior to the renovation of Walker Hall in the early 1970's, a large room was on the third floor where now Walker Hall Rooms 301, 302 and 303 are located. Wooden desks were placed around the outer wall and grouped in the middle of the room. Now in those times, the primary teaching assignment of the graduate students was teaching the Comprehensive Mathematics C-42 course using in the 1950's the Kokomoor text Mathematics in Human Affairs mentioned earlier in this chapter. Since the Lower Division had a Board of Examiners which did all the testing [apart from weekly quizzes], the graduate students had no responsibility in assigning final grades for the course. Thus this room was simply a place where the C-42 students came for help with this core course in the Lower Division. Hence, not much productive work could be done in the room, and Kenelly recalls that the graduate students used to meet in the union for burgers and fries and to talk about mathematics. An amusing aspect of this bull pen was that given the large number of instructors per desk, that each student just had the use of one of the desk drawers, with the most senior student on each desk having the use of the large middle drawer.

Another recollection Kenelly related was that in those days, the Graduate Students were required to attend the Colloquium series. Since Kokomoor and Hutcherson were ministers, and Edwin Hadlock was an Elder of the First Presbyterian Church, the graduate students used to call the front row where the senior faculty sat for these Colloquia, the Deacon's Row.

A final story that Kenelly told me, indicates as Theral Moore agreed, that during the Simpson, Kokomoor and Maxfield eras, that no matter how nice a person the Chairman was, a certain level of power, rather than a consensual management style, was assumed. Kenelly recalls the following incident in his own graduate student days concerning Professor Kokomoor and himself. Professor Kokomoor somehow indicated that he wanted to speak with Kenelly, then asked Kenelly if he would like to accept a certain teaching assignment with the rank of Interim Instructor accompanying this teaching assignment. Apparently, Kenelly was not sure that he wished to take on this teaching obligation. Then Kokomoor asked him,

``You wish to graduate from this department, don't you?'' 
and repeated the question, as to whether Kenelly wished to become an Interim Instructor and teach this particular course. This time Kenelly understood that it behooved him to accept the assignment with alacrity.

Now we turn to the specialist in mathematics education in the department during the Kokomoor years, William Atkins Gager. He was born in Cold Springs, Pennsylvania on December 23, 1897. He received a B.S. in 1919 from Pennsylvania State College, then was an Instructor in Civil Engineering and Experimental Engineering at this same institution from 1919--1923, receiving the M.S. in 1923. Gager served as a Sanitary Engineer for the Johnstown Water Company in Pennsylvania from 1923--1926. He came to Florida and served as a high school teacher from 1926--1927, then as the Head of the Mathematics Department at St. Petersburg Junior College from 1927--1942. He received the Ph.D. in mathematics in 1940 from Peabody College. He held the rank of Associate Professor at the University of Florida from 1942--1949, and the rank of Professor after 1949. Gager was involved with the Air Forces and Army Specialized Training Division on campus from 1943--1945. He served as the Associate Editor of the journal Math Teacher from 1950--1953 and as the Editor of the journal Math at Work from 1948--1952. During the summers of 1948 and 1949, Professor Gager attended a summer institute at Duke University under the direction of Professor W. Rankin of the Duke Department of Mathematics. Following up on this workshop, Gager prepared a series of

``25 lectures on the use of mathematics in large industries, of
interest to teachers.''

He also wrote with Professor Kokomoor and others, for the State Department of Education in Tallahassee, curricular materials for grades seven through twelve, entitled Functional Mathematics. The aim of this series was to

``pull out of compartmentalized courses being taught in high schools all the
concepts necessary for effective living in a mechanical age''
and to
``add topics more closely related to personal finance, consumer education,
and responsible citizenship.''

In the 1955 American Men of Science, Gager lists his scientific interests as mathematical needs of junior colleges, revisions of secondary mathematics curriculum; sanitary engineering; mathematics essentials for the war effort; functional mathematics.

Another interesting personality in the Gainesville Mathematics Department during the 1950's was Dr. Russell Walter Cowan, a specialist in ordinary differential equations. He was born in Oakland, California on February 26, 1912. He received the A.B. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1932, the M.A. in 1933, and the Ph.D. in 1935. He served as an Instructor of Mathematics and Astronomy at the College of St. Scholastica from 1935--1938. He then was Instructor, later Assistant Professor at the University of Alabama from 1938--1947, and came to the University of Florida with the rank of Associate Professor in 1947. He lists his research interests in the 1955 American Men of Science as Analysis; differential equations; difference equations; solutions of a linear difference equation of the second order with quadratic coefficients.

Professor Cowan supervised five Ph.D. theses between 1956 and 1962. Professor Theral Moore recalls that Cowan's differential equations courses were popular with the graduate students, because he dotted every i and left nothing to the imagination. As an aspect of such a precise personality, Professor Cowan liked to see things arranged in certain orderly fashions. During a certain time, the mail boxes in Walker Hall were accessed from inside the departmental office instead of from the hall corridor as today. Apparently, Cowan believed very strongly that the fluorescent light fixture of this mail room should be extinguished upon leaving this room, and would always turn it off if he found it left on. To foil him, some fellow faculty members or graduate students with a sense of humor left the lights on and the string hidden on top of the ceiling light fixture. That did not faze Professor Cowan in the slightest, I am told. He would get a yardstick and fish the string down from the top of the light fixture, then turn out the light.

There is a second legendary story that several people have related to me about a faculty member from this time period throwing a desk chair through the window of a Walker Hall third floor class room, when his ire was provoked by undergraduates nailing the windows shut so that this professor could not open them to cool the room down during the depths of winter to what he regarded as the correct temperature for his class room, but a temperature which the students apparently found to be freezing. Sources tell me that the real incidence which gave rise to these legends was somewhat milder. One time when the desks and chairs in this classroom were not arranged in a sufficiently orderly fashion, this faculty member corrected this, throwing them about in his anger and may have hit a female student with a desk by mistake. Another time, when the blinds were not properly adjusted, apparently this faculty member's attempts to correctly adjust them resulted in their being thrown out the window; this incident seems to have given rise to the legendary chair out the window story.

Theral Moore and Gould Sadler have recalled another little Kokomoor story about one of the mathematics instructors who was here between 1955 and 1960. This individual kept missing his Friday class, getting someone else to teach it for him, and boarding a bus after 12:00 every Friday to leave town presumably for the weekend. After Kokomoor learnt of this practice and it was not stopping, he personally went down to the bus station to tell this instructor that he had better get off the bus and go teach his class or he would not have a position any longer.

During the 1950's and 1960's, it was common at Florida as elsewhere around the country for graduate students to hold the rank of Interim Instructor or Instructor if they had shown promise while earning their master's degrees and were working on their Ph.D. Here are some vitas about some of our younger instructors who taught in our department and who received their Ph.D. during the Kokomoor Chairmanship, and who happened to be listed in the 1955 American Men of Science.

Swend Theodore Gormsen was born in Denmark on February 24, 1909. He received the B.A. from Ohio State in 1935, then taught in Blasdell High School in New York from 1935--1937, in Liberty High School from 1937--1940, then in Lakewood High School in Ohio from 1940--1943. Gormsen served in the U. S. Naval Reserve from 1943--1946 emerging with the rank of lieutenant commander. During the academic year 1946--1947, Gormsen was an Instructor in mathematics at Syracuse University. Then he came to the University of Florida with the rank of Assistant Professor in 1947 and held that rank until 1954. He received the M.S. in 1949 according to the University Card Catalogue with a thesis title Some Applications of Mathematics to Electrical Engineering, Mathematics thesis, M.S., even though he is not on our list of masters candidates. While continuing his teaching, he did doctoral work with Professor Hutcherson and received the Ph.D. in 1954. Dr. Gormsen then became a Professor at Rollins College in 1954.

James Crutchfield Morelock was born in Martin, Tennessee on February 7, 1920 and received his B.S. from Memphis State in 1941. He served in the armed forces from 1941--1946, then went to the University of Missouri-Columbia with the rank of Assistant Instructor in Mathematics from 1946--1948 and received the M.A. from Missouri in 1948. Morelock then came to Florida with the title of Instructor of Astronomy and Mathematics from 1949--1952. He received the 7th Ph.D. from our department in 1952, with supervisor also Professor Hutcherson. He then joined the Mathematics Department of Alabama Polytechnic (now Auburn) with the rank of Assistant Professor.

We have seen from several examples on our own faculty in this chapter how the need for training our armed forces in mathematics during World War II seems to have created a sufficient demand for instruction that a number of people left high school teaching for positions at the state universities. Also, in the aftermath of World War II and the enrollment boom from the returning G.I.'s entering college under the G.I. Bill, a similarly large demand must suddenly have been created for people who could teach mathematics, especially at the elementary level, in our nation's colleges and universities, for we can also see from the 1955 American Men of Science, a second wave of people leaving high school teaching for the state university. A further example on our faculty was Howard Kenneth Lewis. Lewis lists his area of interest in the 1955 American Men of Science as being Electrical Engineering. Lewis was born in Windsor, New York on October 19, 1896. He received an E.E. degree from Syracuse University in 1923, then was a teacher of physics, later head of the science department in Florida High Schools from 1924--1940 and an Assistant Principal from 1940--1946. In 1933 Lewis received a Bachelors of Pedagogy degree from the University of Toronto. He came to the University of Florida with the rank of Assistant Professor of Mathematics in 1946, when he was around 50 and retired in 1962 with the title of Associate Professor and Counselor, so apparently he was also involved in student advisement.

John William Young was born in Toronto, Ontario on November 16, 1912. But yet he received the B.A. from the University of Florida in 1934. Then he taught in the Palm Beach County Schools from 1934--1941, serving as Principal at the Riviera School from 1937--1941. He also continued his studies at the University of Florida, for he received the B.S. in 1937 and received the M.A. as our 13th masters student in 1940 with supervisor Professor Kokomoor and title, Geometry on the Basis of Veblen's Assumptions. Then Young served in the armed forces during World War II, earning a Bronze Star for Merit in 1945 and also several other awards, and emerging with rank of captain. Following the war, Young was appointed to our department with the rank of Instructor in Mathematics from 1946--1952 and held the position of Assistant Professor during the academic year 1953--1954. He wrote his thesis on differential equations under the direction of Professor Russell Cowan, receiving the 8th doctorate in August, 1952 with the title Non-Classical Orthogonal Polynomials. In 1954, Dr. Young joined the Applied Science Division of I.B.M.

Finally, we turn to one of the senior faculty members during the Kokomoor Chairmanship with interests in number theory and complex variables, Edwin Harold Hadlock. Like Simpson, Hadlock was born in Maine, in Gorham, Maine to be precise, on September 17, 1901. He received the A.B. from the University of Maine in 1924 and the M.A. in 1926. Following the by now familiar pattern to those of you who have managed to read this far in this chapter, Hadlock served as an Instructor of Mathematics at the University of Maine during 1924--1927 while working on his master's degree. Then Hadlock went to Cornell and studied number theory with the noted American number theorist Burton Wadsworth Jones; Jones was at Cornell from 1930--1945, then moved to Boulder, Colorado for the rest of his career as one of the builders of the modern Colorado department. Hence, Hadlock and Hutcherson knew each other as graduate students at Cornell! Mrs. Hadlock recalls that Jones may have made the move to Colorado for health reasons, maybe a mild form of tuberculosis. Now Hadlock received his Ph.D. degree in 1933, during the Great Depression when academic positions must not have been easy to come by. At the time, there were three vacancies at Chulalongkorn University, the Siamese government university, in mathematics, civil engineering, and electrical engineering. The Siamese government asked the International Institute of Education, of which Edward R. Murrow was chairman, to aid this university in filling these positions. Mrs. Hadlock recalls that only certain universities world wide were eligible to nominate candidates for these positions, with each institution, such as Cornell, able to nominate two candidates. The nomination process took place during the fall of 1932. By January or February of 1933, Hadlock learned that he had been selected as the candidate representing the United States in the national competition for the mathematics position. On June 14, 1933, Hadlock learned that he had won the world competition for the open position in mathematics. The electrical engineering professor was chosen from Sweden and the civil engineering professor from Switzerland. Hadlock had to travel to Woods Hole, Massachusetts, the summer vacation place of the Siamese government representative in the United States, to sign a three year contract. Also, Hadlock requested a travel allowance of 200 pounds of English money rather than an earlier figure of 150 pounds. Thus on July 22, 1933, Edwin and Janet Hadlock found themselves on a Canadian Pacific train bound for Vancouver. In Vancouver, Hadlock learned that the request for extra travel monies had been granted. The couple set sail from Vancouver on the ship Empress of China, which sailed via the Aleutian Islands to Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki, the Inland China Sea, Shanghai, Kowlook, Hong Kong, Swatow, and finally to their destination of Bangkok. The Siamese kept the thirty mile river passage to Bangkok deliberately shallow as protection against warships, so that the Empress of China had to wait until high tide. Hadlock served as Chairman there during a second three year term from 1936 to 1939. All three of the Hadlock children were thus born in Bangkok. As World War II was breaking out in Asia, Professor Hadlock decided to leave with his family and come back to the United States in 1939. Nancy Hadlock Moore wrote me in an e-mail message on Februrary 2, 1994

``... If we had not left when we did, we all would have been put
in a Japanese Concentration Camp like the other westerners.  My
parents had friends who wouldn't leave and they ended up in one of
these camps---women and children too. They kept the men longer
than their families.''

Back in the States, Hadlock managed to get a position at Boston University during 1940. Nancy Moore recalled after I showed her the Sledd Autobiography of a Southern Schoolmaster material that her father had mentioned, although not in detail, some rough students in the classes at Boston University, who would put matches in the teacher's erasers hoping that the matches would be lit as the professor tried to erase the board. Fortunately, in 1941, Professor Hadlock was able to move to the more benign atmosphere of Hastings College, a Presbyterian college in Nebraska, where he served as Professor and Head of the Department from 1941--1948.

Then in 1948, Dr. Simpson hired him into our department where he served as Associate Professor from 1948--1953 and as Professor from 1953 until his retirement in 1972. In those days, still at a much smaller university than now, Professor Simpson informed Preacher Gordon of the First Presbyterian Church that the Hadlocks were Presbyterian, then Preacher Gordon sent them a nice letter welcoming them to the First Presbyterian Church on their arrival in Gainesville. Also, Dean Simpson knew that an English professor, Dr. Spivey, was leaving Gainesville, so he recommended to the Hadlocks that they purchase Dr. Spivey's house. A niece and nephew of Mrs. Hadlock, who happened to be at the University of Florida, went over and inspected the house, so the Hadlocks bought this property sight unseen. Mrs. Nancy Moore recollects that in 1948, twenty one years after Professor Kokomoor had found a tight housing situation in Gainesville in 1927, housing also happened to be in scarce supply.

During 1948 through 1972, Professor Hadlock directed five masters theses and nine doctoral theses, and also collaborated with Professor Theral Moore on several papers on number theory. These two professors also discussed a draft of a complex variables book that Hadlock had written; Moore put these rough notes into a polished final form and the Moore and Hadlock complex variable book was published in 1991, several years after Hadlock's death in January, 1988.

As part of this study of the history of the University of Florida Mathematics Department, I wrote to 11 of the Ph.D alumni from the 1950's who were still on the Walker Hall Review active mailing list, inviting them to sent me comments about their graduate student days. As reported above, one of these alumni, Dr. Ernest Lytle, had died in 1988. It is interesting that out of the remaining 10 possible respondents, that three of the Hadlock students sent me their recollections, including a nice long response from Dr. Thomas Horton, describing his long and interesting career at I.B.M., then at the American Management Association, which I published in full in the Spring, 1994 issue of the Walker Hall Review. I also received a long and helpful letter from Dr. Emmet Low, a student of C. Basel Smith, and I have had some e-mail correspondence with Dr. Mary Neff and Dr. John Neff.

We start with the three responses I received from the Hadlock students: Dr. Thomas Horton (Ph.D. 1954), Dr. Richard Yates (Ph.D. 1957), and Dr. Jan Andrus (Ph.D. 1958). In this last case, we should mention that as described in Chapter 5}, that the first time a junior faculty member supervised a thesis in these times, they were required to take on a senior faculty member as dissertation supervisor, and the younger faculty member was listed as co-director. Thus Andrus was really advised by Alton Butson who left around 1950 for a long career at the University of Miami as we indicated previously in this chapter, although Professor Hadlock is listed as his official advisor.

Dr. Thomas R. Horton, M.A. in 1950 (Prof. W. Hutcherson), Ph.D. in 1954 (Prof. E. Hadlock), wrote the following to me on March 11, 1994.

``Many thanks for your two recent letters. It was quite a surprise to learn
that the University's Department of Mathematics now boasts a historian.  And 
just in time, too, since I have apparently attained the status of a subject for
historical research.  I was delighted to hear from you, for I very much enjoy
the Walker Hall Review.  And you certainly have my permission to
profile my recent award in its Spring edition, if you wish to do so.

With respect to my career, after graduating from Stetson University with
a major in mathematics in 1949 and attending the University of
Wisconsin for one summer session, I became a graduate student at the
University of Florida.  And as you know, I earned a masters degree
under the direction of William R. Hutcherson in 1950.  At that time a
teaching career seemed appropriate (and one of the few careers
available to mathematics majors), so I returned to my secondary  school
 alma mater, The Bolles School in Jacksonville, which was then a military
school.  (Bolles had been founded in 1933 at the beautiful but failed San Jose
Hotel, a Mediterranean architectural gem that was meant to resemble an ancient
Spanish castle when it was built in 1926, incidentally the year I was
born.  The great depression, coupled with a land scandal, brought the
hotel's plans to a sudden end before its first guest arrived.  The
hotel was then leased to the Florida Military Academy, which failed to
meet its financial obligations, and soon the new Bolles School was
established by the owner of the property on those beautiful grounds
overlooking the St. Johns River, south of Jacksonville.)  To answer
your question, Bolles continues and indeed, flourishes today as a non-military,
co-educational school, and for the past three years I have been serving on its
Board of Advisors.  This May I'll attend my 50th class reunion.

The return to Bolles was a great experience.  The training I had received
there had benefited me in my two-and-one-half year stint in the U.S. Army, in
which I enlisted on the day of my high-school graduation in 1944.
Moreover, its high academic standards had stood me in good stead at
Stetson. While at Stetson I married a `coed' so my wife and I lived in
a dormitory at Bolles, surrounded by cadets. At the end of our first
year, I was named Commandant, the person in charge of discipline,
homesick boys, and various crises.  Most of the teachers I had known as a
 student were still on the faculty, and I suddenly became their colleague. In
a sense I ``gave back'' to Bolles the two years I had spent there as a
student, but in truth I received much more as a teacher than I gave.
Soon, however, Mrs.   Horton and I felt confined by the cloistered
atmosphere of a residential school, and at that time I thought that
college teaching looked attractive.  Meanwhile, a good friend at
Gainesville, John Hoffman, then a graduate student in physics, 
was urging me to return for a Ph.D. So in the Fall of 1952 we returned to
the University.

In those days, the University of Florida was a relatively small
and undistinguished institution by today's standards.  The surge of
returning GI's had subsided.  As a graduate teaching assistant, I
taught only freshmen mathematics, using Franklin Kokomoor's textbook,
 Mathematics in Human Affairs.  I do not recall 
the name of the building in which these classes were held, but the
room was much larger than any in Walker Hall and rather densely
populated, upwards of forty students.  I would see Dr.  Kokomoor
riding his bicycle to and from work each day.  He was always generous
with his time and helped me recruit students in need of tutoring,
which provided a bit of needed extra income.  He and we belonged to
the University Methodist Church, whose pastor was Thaxton Springfield.
I recall that one sermon included a reference to something that had
increased threefold, and then increased threefold once more.  The
minister referred to this combined increase as sixfold, I remember Dr.  
Kokomoor's catching my eye and smiling.  Apparently, Dr.   
Springfield had not read the ubiquitous Kokomoor textbook.  I remember
a number of mathematics faculty members, including Blake, Cowan,
Meyer, John Moore, Phipps, Pirenian, and Lang. In particular I recall
the excruciating experience of Lang's class in real variables. On the
positive side, I remember Basel Smith as a very productive applied
mathematician and D. E. South as an excellent teacher.  I very much
admired W. R. Hutcherson and for that reason selected him as my masters
degree advisor. I was interested to learn from the material you sent
 that apparently I was the first graduate student he advised.

When I returned for my Ph.D., those and other members of the faculty
were still at Florida, but there was an exciting new addition in the
person of David Ellis, who quickly developed a coterie of admirers.
He attempted to recruit me as one of his students, but somehow I was
less impressed by him than some others. After groping around for a
while, I settled on the field of number theory and approached
Professor Hadlock. Again, I was interested to learn from you that I
was among the first doctoral students he supervised. Both Hutcherson
and Hadlock were wonderful people   ---   patient and diligent.
Indeed, I am sure that I selected number theory simply because it was
Professor Hadlock's specialty. While I have never regretted this choice, that very
selection probably discouraged my pursuit of a career of teaching at
the college level.  As you probably know, a scholar named Leonard
Dickson had earlier `catalogued' the findings of centuries of research
in number theory, and through perusing Dickson's books I concluded, perhaps
wrongly, that this particular field had been farmed for so long that
it seemed almost farmed out.  I was therefore unsure of my own ability
to conduct significant successful research in the field, something I 
would need to do if I were ever to achieve tenure.  Meanwhile, I was
being urged to return to Bolles and went through a period of career
confusion that I later learned is common for young people.  I even
gave some brief thought to becoming an actuary.

At about that time, however, a new invention called the computer was capturing
the public eye.  Two then recent masters graduates, Norman Rasmussen
[ed., M.A. in June, 1953 with supervisor Herbert Meyer, On the [ed., M.A.
in August, 1952 with supervisor Zareh Pirenian, Pythagorean
Triples and Primitive Integral Techniques] had joined 
I.B.M. and suggested that I do the same. Coincidentally, a conference on
the topic of Monte Carlo techniques was held at the University (in 1954), and
attending it was Dr. Cuthbert Hurd, I.B.M.'s Director of Applied
Science. Also at this conference were such noted scientists as Stanislaw
Ulam. Dr. and Mrs. Hurd took Mrs. Horton and me to a rather elegant
(for Gainesville) dinner, and I did join I.B.M. soon after receiving
my Ph.D.

Incidentally, our days at the University coincided with the national
hysteria about communists and communist sympathizers.  Senator Joseph
McCarthy had advised President Truman in 1950 that the State Department
was riddled with communists. In 1953 the U.S.S.R. exploded a hydrogen
bomb, and the Rosenbergs were executed. The following year, J. Robert
Oppenheimer was dismissed from government service, and Joe McCarthy's
witch-hunting activities culminated in nationally televised hearings.
As students, we had no TV set (and, for that matter, no car), but my
ear stayed glued to the radio throughout these hearings, and I developed a
lifelong enthusiasm for political serio-comedy which has lasted through
Watergate, Irangate, and now Whitewater.''

Dr. Horton worked at I.B.M. from 1954 until he took early retirement in 1982 at the age of 55, before this sort of thing became common. At I.B.M., Horton started as an applied science representative, then worked in such fields as weather forecasting, vehicular traffic control, and air traffic control. His assignments included heading the I.B.M. Space Computation Center in Washington, D.C., in 1957, which was involved in calculating orbits for our space satellites. Later, Horton was involved with Project Mercury. He was also a Product Manager, Vice President for Systems, Vice President for Marketing, General Manager of Advanced Systems Development Division, and finally the I.B.M. Director of University Relations. In this capacity, Horton worked closely with many colleges and universities, and for a time even served as a member of the Advisory Board of the University of Florida's College of Engineering.

In 1982, Dr. Horton joined the American Management Association as President and CEO. There Horton

``had the opportunity to meet many leaders in all walks of life, and
Mrs. Horton and I traveled extensively around the world.''
While with this organization, Horton authored, or co-authored the following books: What Works for Me: 16 CEO's Talk About Their Careers and Commitments, Random House, 1986; Beyond the Trust Gap: Forging a New Partnership Between Managers and their Employees, Business One-Irwin, 1991, (with Peter Reid); and most recently, The CEO Paradox: the Privilege and Accountability of Leadership, American Management Association, 1992.

Finally, Dr. Horton describes his current activities as follows:

``In 1992, I  retired from AMA as Chairman and returned to my college alma
mater, Stetson University, where I now serve as University Advisor, a sort of
eminence grise, which has proven to be an altogether pleasant role.  Upon my
return to college, in contrast to my return to Bolles, there were 
no faculty members I had known who were still teaching here ....
Here I work with students and lecture occasionally, but in the
Business School rather than in the Mathematics Department, and handle
a variety of administrative tasks.  This post provides both
intellectual stimulation and a degree of freedom, so I am still able
to travel fairly frequently with Mrs. Horton and give speeches
Over the past forty years, we have done a lot of things.  Most important, we
raised three daughters, all now grown.  And during those years I often found
myself deeply immersed as a volunteer in a variety of non-profit organizations.
I had the opportunity to serve as a trustee at four colleges and universities,
was Chair of the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges,
and am now National Chair of an organization called Kids Voting
USA, whose goal is to teach students (K--12) about the
political process through classroom instruction and experiential
education; the students are encouraged to vote at mock ballot boxes at
regular voting precincts, the cost of voting being to bring an adult
along.  In 1992, over 500,000 students participated in pilot projects in
ten states, and we hope by 1996 to have a presence in all fifty

Since Dr. Horton mentions being recruited by Dr. Cuthbert Hurd for I.B.M. in the mid-50's, it is interesting to turn to the 1955 American Men of Science and see how Cuthbert Corwin Hurd's career path led him into the senior technical management and I.B.M.; we find in fact that Hurd had spent over 15 years teaching at various academic institutions. [Coincidentally, Dr. Richard Ehrlich, Ph.D. in physics from Cornell in 1947, recalled meeting Dr. Hurd during Ehrlich's time in scientific management at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory in Schenectady, New York. Ehrlich's own recollection was that prior to World War II, industries in America, including General Electric, employed virtually no mathematics doctorates. After World War II, when P.D.E.'s could be solved numerically using the early generation mainframe computers, then research laboratories began employing Ph.D. mathematicians. One of Ehrlich's favorite anecdotes was the following: at Cornell, his thesis advisor told him just to assume a certain operator was positive in his dissertation research; a decade or so later, when Ehrlich was manager of the Theoretical Physics and Mathematics Group at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, two of his mathematics Ph.D. employees proved that the operator had to be positive.} Hurd was born in Easterville, Iowa on April 5, 1911. He received the A.B. from Drake University in 1932 then taught at Iowa State from 1932--1934, receiving the M.S. degree in 1934. Hurd was then a Fellow at the University of Illinois from 1934--1936, receiving the Ph.D. in 1936. From 1936--1942, Hurd was at Michigan State College, first as an Instructor, then as an Assistant Professor. From 1942--1945, Hurd served as an educational officer at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, then from 1945--1947 was Dean at Allegheny College. Only in 1947, did Hurd move into industry, first with the Carbide and Carbon Chemical Corporation from 1947--1949 as the Technical Research Head, then joining I.B.M. in 1949 as Director, Applied Science Division. As we have tracked our graduates from the 1950's more or less at random, we should note that this Division hired at least four of our graduates: Fultz, Horton, Lytle, and Rasmussen.

Returning to our alumni correspondence, here are Dr. Richard Yates memories of his graduate student days at the University of Florida, which he sent to me in a letter dated March 7, 1994.

``When I first came to the University of Florida in 1952, the
Mathematics Department was housed in Walker Hall (without the addition
at the back).  The Mechanical Engineers had moved out not too long before.
They had air-conditioned part of the building on their own and took all
the equipment, ductwork, etc. with them when they moved.  There were
large gaping holes in some of the floors, walls and ceilings where the
ductwork had been installed.  I particularly remember a large hole in
one corner of Dr. Kokomoor's office.  Of course, there was no air conditioning
in the building then.  Dr. Kokomoor was an extremely congenial person
who took a personal interest in the staff and the graduate students.  He 
welcomed having people come in just to chat and let him know how things 
were going for them.  One of the things he was particularly proud of was
framed on his office wall. During the Second World War the Mathematics
Department had been deeply involved in Bootstrap Training for new 
soldiers.  They had voluminous records which the Registrar's office didn't
want since these students had never officially been U of F students.
Dr. Kokomoor wrote the appropriate office in Washington to ask whether the
records should be shipped there or could be destroyed. The reply stated
that they should not under any circumstances ship the records to Washington.
They could feel free to destroy the records they wished, but they should
keep copies in duplicate of everything they destroyed.  He chuckled every
time he pointed out the framed letter to anyone.

Most of my anecdotes of graduate student days at U of F concern eccentricities
of some of the faculty which are better not repeated here. The faculty held
parties, occasionally, but the graduate students were not invited.  One day
one of my students who came from a farm in north Florida presented me with
a 43-pound watermelon which he had grown.  After I told a few people in the
department about it, I was invited to the faculty party being
held that evening with the stipulation that I bring my watermelon to share.
I didn't hesitate to go although I felt a little out of place as the only
graduate student there; the others certainly enjoyed the watermelon.

When I started in the fall of 1952, the Teaching Assistant stipend was
 $900 per year.  For that we taught one course in one semester and two the
other.  The graduate students taught C-41 (or C-42---I confuse
the two course numbers now.) I don't remember any graduate student
teaching calculus.  C-41 used Kokomoor's book and was rigidly
structured.  The common exams were machine graded, so that all the
instructors had to do was present the material in class and help
students with their problems.  The students varied a great deal, but the
mathematically oriented were siphoned off into other courses, so that what
was left tended to have many difficulties.  For 1953 the stipend was increased
to $1200 per year.  I felt so affluent that I bought a car.

I have only vague memories of faculty seminars.  All I remember were one-hour
presentations given by faculty members presenting their latest
research results. They usually were abstruse enough that I followed
for ten or fifteen minutes and them was lost.  I suspect that was true
of most of the graduate students and other faculty.  I believe there
were no continuing seminars addressing themselves to a single topic.''

When I spoke to Dr. Yates over the telephone, he told me of one other custom that was apparently the fashion in pre-photocopying days. The graduate students had to make up a number of copies of their theses after these documents had been typed. There was a machine called an Ozalid in between the first and second floors of Walker Hall, smelling strongly of ammonia, which the students themselves used for this purpose. Dr. Yates lived off campus next to the Kokomoor's during his graduate student days and recalls Kokomoor riding his bicycle to the University, just as in the 1939 Seminole yearbook photograph I found. Yates recalls how during the 1950's, Kokomoor would go off on Sundays to preach Methodist sermons in small churches in the country. Yates believed that 17 hour teaching loads for the faculty in the 1950's, as Theral Moore checked for me, could have been entirely possible.

Dr. Jan Andrus, currently a Professor of Mathematics at the University of New Orleans, responded as follows on March 7, 1994 to my request for information:

``I was very pleased to receive the material on the early history of your
department.  I have always felt warmness for the Department. Despite the size 
of the University, the UF Math Department was a very friendly place when I was 
there (1955--1958) and I felt I was a part of it even before I
arrived.  Dr. Kokomoor called me long distance to express his
interest in my application.   After arriving, I found the department to be
friendly and helpful.

Alton T. Butson was my main advisor; Dr. Hadlock was listed as a co-director
because of his seniority. Hadlock was my instructor in only one course.  I
found him to be a most earnest teacher.  I have always been influenced by his
concern that so many students of math have not stuck with it.  Except for a
couple of brief digressions, I have always stayed with it.
Please give my regards to Theral Moore, who was my topology professor.  He
is the only one of my professors who is still at Florida.  All of his class
thought highly of him.

Dr. Andrew Sobczyk was an influential member of the Department.  For example,
he organized a seminar on complex sets, in which I was a main participant. This
has come in handy recently because I have become interested in linear
programming and may have stumbled upon a new polynomial-time algorithm.

As far as I can recall, the choice of a particular advisor in the department
was often based on the professor's recent record in advising students
who completed their dissertation successfully.  My choice was based on
field of interest (algebra).

Although I had studied to be an algebraist, I was compelled to go into the
defense industry after leaving Florida.  I worked there for 15 years
(with Lockheed, G.E., and Northrop) as an applied mathematician before returning
in 1973 to the academic world at the University of New Orleans.  Most of the
industrial work was under contract to NASA. I worked on the simulation of
the Saturn and Shuttle rockets and on optimal guidance methods.  I held
managerial jobs for brief periods, but did not like it.  I should say too
that I like University  life much better than the industrial.''

Dr. Sobczyk had been mentioned to me by Professor Jed Keesling as a faculty member of this period, but unfortunately I have been unable to turn up any information on him apart from this mention in Dr. Andrus's correspondence and Professor Meacham's recollections.

Now we turn once again to the reminiscences of Dr. Emmet Low, who received as noted above, our 12th Ph.D. with supervisor Professor C. Basel Smith in 1953.

``Since you are working with the history of the department, it might be of
interest to look at the history of one of the persons strongly influenced by
the department.  I came from a broken home, my parents were divorced when I 
was five and Mother moved from Illinois to Orlando with her three children. It
was in the depression and sometimes we had to use gifts of food and clothing.
When I was ten, Mother married a man who was a printer with a fifth grade education.
I graduated from Orlando Senior High School in 1940 with reasonably 
good grades and very high state test scores.  However, going to college was not
an option and I never even considered it.  My first full-time job was at the 
Food Palace, Orlando's nicest grocery, as a general handyman working twelve 
hours a day, seven days a week for ten dollars a week.  I note that until
I enlisted in 1942, I gave my mother half of everything I earned.  However, I never 
felt disadvantaged or disabled, (I am essentially blind in one eye)
and never felt anyone owed me anything.  

When I came out of the service the last of January 1946, my mother encouraged
 me to go to college.  So, in March 1946 at the age twenty-three, I enrolled in
Stetson with no understanding of what a college was or what going to college
meant.  I had several wonderful instructors who gave me direction and
advice, and toward the end of my third or fourth quarter, I decided to
go to graduate school after graduation from Stetson in May 1948.  I
had completed my degree in approximately twenty-six months.  During
that time, I also delivered the Deland paper daily on a rural route and
worked nights in a filling station on Main Street. I
was invited to join a fraternity after a year and I did, but I had
little time for extra-curricular activities.

I then went to the University of Florida with plans to get my master's
as quickly as possible so I could go to work.  It was a time of
increasing enrollments, and so Dr. Kokomoor insisted that I take a
teaching assistantship which I did with some reluctance.  They handed
me a course outline for the general math course [ed., C-42]
of which I was to teach two sections.  Incidentally, because of the
press for classroom space, many classes were taught on a Tuesday,
Thursday, Saturday schedule.  I started teaching with only a textbook
and an outline.  Somehow, I made it through the semester.''

Earlier in this chapter, we quoted from Dr. Low's studies during his first year in complex variables and in elasticity theory. We resume Low's narrative after skipping that paragraph.

``During my first year, I decided to go for a doctorate and not stop with just
a master's. I was interested in not just mathematics, but also how it could be
used to answer questions in the real world.  I took some engineering courses on
the side and ran across a problem in prestressed concrete.  So with the help of
Dr. Smith and Professor William Lincoln Sawyer, head of engineering
mechanics, I wrote a thesis on predicting creep or plastic flow in prestressed
concrete.  I flirted with leaving school after my master's and going
into the prestressed concrete business, but decided against it.  Who
knows, I might have been much wealthier, but I doubt I could have had
a better life than I have had.

That fall, I was offered a full time instructorship in the physical sciences
which I took with the understanding I could continue to work on a
doctorate.  Incidentally, the regular teaching load was fifteen hours
which was five classes. The first semester I taught five sections of
the same course and, by the end of the week, I could answer the
questions in class before they were asked.

The following year they moved me to physics full time where I continued until
I graduated and went with the National Committee on Aeronautics, now
NASA. I had one weak course in physics at Stetson and a junior level
course in electricity and magnetism my first year at Florida so I was
not very well prepared to teach physics. However, the way we think and
work in mathematics helped me function in  physics with relative ease
and I really enjoyed seeing mathematics relate to the  real world
through physics.  Incidentally, some of the graduate students in
physics  were good friends of mine and they used to bring problems
from their graduate  courses to me for help solving.  With the good
understanding of basic physics principles I had gotten from teaching
physics and being fluent in mathematics, I was  often able to solve their
problems even though I had not had the physics they had 
had.  I have often used this as an example of the importance of having
a good mathematical background for any students who expect to do any
substantive work in physics, chemistry, or engineering.

At that time, most of the mathematics department was housed in Walker Hall 
and the physics department in Peabody.  There was a landing on the
stairs leading to the second floor of Walker where a copying machine
using a process with the name Ozalid as I recall.  It used a solution
that included ammonia and, when it was in operation, you did not
linger long going up or down the stairs.  We used it  to make copies
of our theses and dissertations then.

During my years of teaching physics, my office was on the top floor of Peabody
along with Morton Teller who was in charge of the physics lab.  One
day, I went to the bathroom for a moment and, when I returned a big
chunk of plaster from the ceiling had fallen on my desk and chair.
That someone who kept me out of trouble at the University also kept me
from being hurt apparently.

Panty raids occurred in the early fifties when the male students would get 
together one night after dark, go to a dormitory housing females,
invade it and make off with items of girls' underclothing.  After a
couple of these episodes,the administration used the football team
with baseball bats to serve as guards for the girls dorms. I recall
some of the boys taunting the football players for interfering instead
of joining in the fun and the players responded with it was their
scholarships that were on the line and they were not going to risk
losing them just for a little risque fun.

Some of the girls joined in the fun and would go to a balcony and toss down 
armloads of clothing.  The university identified all of the
participants they could and even conducted searches of some of the
rooms of suspected participants looking for evidence such as girls
undies.  At one of the disciplinary hearings, a young man from South
America was charged through evidence found in his room.  He commented
that he thought the panty raids were just an American college custom,
that he had seen pictures of panty raids in Life magazine recently
that had occurred on other campuses and, on the night of the raid when
the boys said,

``Come on, we're going to raid the girls dormitories,''

he went along for the fun.  He stood around 
watching and, when a girl tossed down a bunch of underwear, he reached
up and grabbed one as it floated down to take back as a souvenir.  He
was let off, but some students were expelled even though the semester
was almost over and they lost all credit for work in that semester. I
remember sitting in a meeting with some of the administration as they
discussed how to avoid or prevent problems like these with students.
One of the older administrators commented,

``Remember there are many more of them than us and some of them are
smarter than we are, so we're not going to be able to stop all of

 I often remembered his wise comments over the years as I 
served as an administrator trying to deal with students.  Incidentally,
times have really changed and many of the actions taken by
 the administration then could not be taken now.
Those years at Florida were a wonderful time in my life. Dr. Kokomoor was a warm and understanding person with a delightful family. He was ambidextrous and could write quite well on the blackboard with either hand. I believe his doctorate was from the University of Michigan. He was an ordained Methodist minister and had supported his family while working on his doctorate by serving as a pastor in a church in Ohio [ed., actually in Ann Arbor] .... The atmosphere around the University during those years was really warm and pleasant and, I suppose, somewhat typical of the country for awhile in those postwar years. Most of us seemed to know where we were trying to go and went about our business in a friendly and cooperative manner. I had never heard of drugs other than alcohol, and I never became involved in it. Those years at the University and the people with whom I worked and played, I am sure, helped give me direction and values that stood me well over the ensuing years. I am sure you and your colleagues are doing the same for the students who are going through now, it must be a little harder. I attribute much of what I have been able to do and any recognition I have received largely to those experiences at the University .... In January 1954, I went to NACA, where a colleague and I developed methods to be used in the design of larger aircraft that probably is still in use today. This was in the McCarthy era and the atmosphere in governmental research was uncomfortable. A friend, Jesse Oroshink, who had received his graduate degree in physics at Florida soon after I went to NACA, went to work there also. His family was Jewish and had immigrated from Russia. Even though he and his brother had served in W W II and were honorably discharged, he was forced to leave because somebody thought he might be a security risk. I had gotten to know Jesse quite well at Florida. Through him, I learned a lot about Jewish culture and developed, I believe, a more tolerant and understanding attitude toward other cultures that served me well later. So, after about eighteen months at NACA, I went to the University of Miami in 1955 as an assistant professor of mathematics. When I started at NACA, I was assigned a problem that involved the analysis of stresses around rectangular cutouts in circular semimonoque structures, better stated as around windows and doors in airplane fuselages. It involved mathematics that included the use of matrices. My work at Florida did not include matrices, so I had to set about learning about them on my own. It gradually developed into trying to solve systems of integro-differential equations connected with difference equations. We were not able to solve the whole system, but after making some simplifying assumptions, we did get some solutions. Of course, this is normal in almost all applications and what we got was very useful. However, when I went to Miami, one of the first things I did was introduce a course on linear algebra, they did not have one at that time, and it became one of my areas of interest. I spent 1959--1960 at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University as a visiting research scientist. I worked mainly with Joe Keller, but also got a chance to know Peter Lax, Louis Nirenberg, Fritz John, Richard Courant and several others. It was a wonderful experience, and like my years at Florida, had a lasting impact on my work.''

Following his return to the University of Miami, Dr. Low was promoted to Associate Professor, then circumstances propelled him into the chairmanship without the rank of Professor. This was an interesting opportunity as Low

``had a bent toward applied mathematics in a department that was
mostly pure mathematics, but they asked me so I was willing to give it
a try.  I did develop a doctoral program and hired some good people
including A. D. Wallace and visiting professors like Paul Halmos.''

Low then served as Associate Dean, later Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Miami University. He also held a joint appointment with engineering and taught things like fluid flow, hydrodynamics and aerodynamics while still in the Mathematics Department. He was involved in the development of a biomedical engineering program with the medical school. He also worked with others on using radar to track hurricanes for the United States Weather Bureau and comments in his letter that the spiral bands around hurricanes happen to be the logarithmic spirals of basic calculus.

In 1972, Dr. Low decided to leave the University of Miami. During the last six years at Miami, he had been isolated from students and teaching as a result of his administrative positions. He had hired a number of Virginia Ph.D.'s in building the department, including A. D. Wallace, so Dr. Low decided to relocate to Virginia at a smaller school where he could be closer to students. He decided to go to Clinch Valley College, as Dean of the College. There he has enjoyed working with students from the Appalachian mountains

``with a lot of native ability and good work attitudes.''

He retired as Dean in 1986 to return to full time teaching. The Department of Education of Virginia was involved in setting up an electronic classroom to offer courses in AP English and AP Calculus in the high schools. So in addition to serving as departmental chair and teaching four courses at Clinch Valley College, Low took on the challenge of doing these television lectures which were broadcast at high schools which had too few students to offer calculus by themselves. Low formally retired in 1989, but remains active helping residents of the area with various mathematics problems involving computers and also occasionally still filling in on the Electronic Classroom network when needed.

Our 24th Ph.D. student, Dr. James Blake Wilson, also took the doctorate under Professor C. B. Smith, with a thesis entitled On Orthotropic Circular Disk Subjected to it's Own Weight When Supported at a Point. The letter I received from Professor Wilson of January 25, 1995 proved to be quite a pleasant surprise to me, for I learned that Professor James Wilson was the son of our early faculty member Professor William Harold Wilson who we first encountered as an Associate Professor in the 1927--1928 catalogue:

``You have surely unearthed a great amount of U of F history which gave me
a trip down memory lane.  The William Harold Wilson who joined the Math Dept
in 1927 was my father, and my life from age three until age 19, when the Army
called me to duty, was spent in Gainesville.  Although my father moved into
administration in the thirties, the ties of interest and friendship
with the early members of the department and their families, whose children
were contemporaries of my brothers and me, remained strong.  My father
remained in Arts and Science as Assistant Dean and later Associate Dean
until after World War II, when, forced by ill health to `slow down', he
joined Dean Little's staff in the General College (he was chairman of
the C-41 course, for which he had authored the textbook).  He retired in 1960.

I am unable to add substantially to the information that you have on
Dr. Smith. It is my understanding that his post-World War II
interest in elasticity, particularly concerned with orthotropic
materials, had some relation to war research on the use of plywood as
a lightweight construction material for cargo aircraft.  I cannot
document this, however. I was in a glider component of an airborne division
during part of the war, and it was my interest in applied
mathematics and my perception of his interest that led me to ask him to direct
my Ph.D. program.  He was a man with a quiet but ready sense of humor, with an
evident enjoyment of both teaching and research.  It comes as no surprise to
learn that he continued teaching following retirement.

Dr. Kokomoor was known to me as a family friend from earlier years as
well as Department Chairman and a member of my graduate committee.  He was
thoroughly dedicated to education, community, and church. His writing
on Kiwanis history is one evidence of his community concern, and I understood
that he occupied the pulpit on occasion when area churches had need.
His chairing of the department, as seen through the eyes of this
graduate teaching assistant, was characterized by firmness, fairness,
and a stern expectation of effective teaching.  (His book, Mathematics
in Human Affairs, was very successful as a textbook for courses like
C-42 and was translated into several languages.) He sought to have a
cohesive faculty and promoted occasional family outings of
faculty and graduate students.

After receiving my degree under Dr. Smith in 1957 .... I joined
the faculty at North Carolina State University (then N. C. State
College) in the same year and have remained there throughout my
career.  Although retired in 1987, I have continued to teach (as
Professor Emeritus) in the fall semesters for the past seven years.
With a large offering of courses and large enrollments (8000 to 9000
registration in math in regular semesters) it has been possible to teach
a variety of courses at all levels, which I have thoroughly enjoyed.  Some
favorites have been advanced geometry, advanced calculus, numerical
analysis,   and honors sections of calculus.  I have been on a number
of masters committees for math majors and for math education majors,
and several doctoral committees for math education majors, but have
not directed Ph.D. programs.

For seventeen summers I had Army Active Duty (two weeks) at USMA,
West Point,  in which I did consulting and writing  for portions of the
yearly revised Ordnance Engineering textbook and course syllabus.  (I had
taught there during the years 1951--1954.) In the nine years preceding
my retirement, I was assistant head and later associate head of the
NC State math department, with principal concern for directing
undergraduate instruction and scheduling the teaching of hundred-plus
faculty members and graduate teaching assistants.''

Since several of our faculty members were involved in the advisement process in the University College and Professor Kokomoor himself was closely involved in the development of this institution, it is appropriate to give some material from the 1948--49 Catalogue pertaining to ``guidance'':


If a Freshman is still undecided about his life's work, he is not
urged to guess on registration day. His program may be made up largely
from the comprehensives which help direct his thinking toward a
desirable objective, together with approved electives that may further
enable him to explore interests and needs. But whether the student is
decided or undecided about his life's work, these comprehensive
courses provide the basic preparation that every educated person
should have.

Thus, since the purpose of general education is to replace
fragmentation, the program absorbs much of the responsibility for
guidance. Every subject or course of the University College program is
designed to guide the student. During the time that he is
making tentative steps toward a profession by taking several subjects
to test aptitudes, interests and ability, he is also studying the
several great areas of human understanding and achievement. The
program is adjusted to the individual, but there must be a more
substantial basis for adjustment than just his chance whim of the
moment. The material of the comprehensive courses is selected and
tested with guidance as a primary function. While, of
necessity this training must point forward to distant goals, this work
in the University College must also present materials which are
directly related to life experiences and which will immediately become
a part of the student's thinking and guide him in making correct 
next steps. Thus the whole program---placement tests,
progress reports, vocational aptitude tests, basic vocational
materials, selected material in the comprehensive courses, student
conferences, adjustments for individual differences, election
privileges, and comprehensive examinations---all are parts of
a plan designed to guide students. Specifically, however, the
University College has a staff of counselors located in the college
office to help the individual.

Guidance, then, is not attempted at one office by one individual with
a small staff, but at more than a dozen places. The whole drive of the
University College program is one of directing the thinking of the
student. While the necessary correlation and unification is attempted
at the University College Office, throughout the University College
period students consult the Upper Division Deans and department heads
to discuss future work. During the last month of the school year these
informal conferences are concluded by a scheduled formal conference at
which each student fills out a pre-registration card for the coming

Every spring the University is privileged to give placement tests to
all seniors in every high school of the state. Since high schools are
also trying to acquaint the student with the common body of knowledge
so needed by all, their records along with the placement test results
indicate the variation that should be made in the program followed by
a student at the University. As a result of placement tests a good
student from high school may be excused from freshman work in one or
more of the comprehensive areas.''

We will give Dr. Franklin Kokomoor (posthumously) the last word in this chapter by quoting the final paragraph in reference [1], Kokomoor's The Years of My Life:

``As I began my life, so I have continued, with respect to my two 
main interests, teaching and religious work. Thus through the years, I have 
often done double work in the two, just as I started out to do during World 
War I. In all, I have taught for about 41 years, and have served as minister 
for about 21 years.  But I have found through the years that these two
professions supplement one another a great deal.  As one of my
outspoken parishioners in Ohio once told me,

`You preach better now that you have become a 
high school principal than you did when you were only a preacher.'  ''


  1. Kokomoor, Franklin, The years of my life, undated manuscript, University of Florida Oral History Project, Kokomoor file.
  2. Transcript in University of Florida Oral History Project of interview of Franklin Wesley Kokomoor by Robert Johnson, 8/17/73.
  3. Article by Anita Mitchell Tassinari, Gainesville Sun, no date available.
  4. Hart, Freeman, University of Florida Builders---Professor Franklin Wesley Kokomoor, manuscript, Kokomoor file, University of Florida Archives, Smathers Library.
  5. Kreher, R. H., We are the boys from old Florida: a pictorial history of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida : R. H. Kreher, 1980 (?).
  6. Proctor, Samuel and Langley, Wright, Gator History; A Pictorial History of the University of Florida, South Star Publishing, Gainesville, Florida, 1986.
  7. Transcript in University of Florida Oral History Project of interview of Elizabeth Simpson by Emily Ring, 11/2/77.
  8. American Men of Science, A Biographical Directory, Ninth Edition, Volume I: Physical Sciences, ed., Jacques Cattell, The Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. and R. W. Bowker Company, New York, 1955.
  9. Ehrlich, Eleanor Ewing, Personal communication.

Appendix A

The University of Florida during World War II

In this Appendix, we supplement the information provided about the University of Florida's role in the national war effort during World War II by the recollections of Mrs. Pirenian, Mrs. Simpson and Dr. Kokomoor with more official information which is contained in the University Record in the Biennial Report of the President of the University of Florida to the Board of Control for the Biennium Ending June 30, 1944.

To the Honorable Board of Control of
  State Institutions of Higher Learning of Florida.


My last biennial report covered the period embracing the beginning of the
 war and certain adjustments that were made necessary at the University
because of that fact. During the biennium closing June 30, 1944, the
complete facilities of the University were involved in the war effort.
At the same time, the entire program of service to civilians was kept
intact.  The details of all activities are set forth in the reports of
Deans, Directors, and other administrative officers. I shall confine
myself to the principal features and some of the high lights of the period,
 attempting in short compass to summarize this critical two-year interval.
The period was one of constant readjustment and intense activity, and
the University carried on, under most difficult conditions, with more
success and less impairment of its normal functions than could have
been anticipated.

In the early stages of the war, the enrollment did not fall so rapidly as 
might have been expected.  In the academic year 1941--1942, which
marked the opening of hostilities, 3,239 students were enrolled in the
regular session and 3,202 during the summer terms.  During the
biennium under consideration the enrollment began to drop, and this
tendency was greatly accelerated by the amendment of the Selective Service
Act which reduced the induction age to eighteen years.  Deferments were
granted to a limited number of students who were preparing for certain 
critical occupations in the fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, and
other technical areas essential to the best conduct of the war.  Aside
from these deferred students, available material for civilian programs
at the University of Florida was confined to boys with physical
disabilities, others under eighteen years of age, and a few women.
By the end of the biennial period there were fewer than a thousand civilian
students on the college level in the University.  To these were added
about five  hundred students in the P. K. Yonge Laboratory School.

During the biennium the policy of the administration has been to
hold together the staff of the University as effectively as possible
while making the maximum  contribution to the war effort, and
preserving intact all of the services demanded for civilians.  The
reduced enrollment and the demand for trained personnel by the armed
forces made it possible to grant many members of the staff leaves of absence
for service in the armed forces or in war production activities.  A high 
degree of flexibility has been maintained and, apart from the loss of some
members of the staff who left the University for more remunerative positions,
the integrity of the institution has been preserved.

A principal factor in carrying out the above policy has been the ability to
use our facilities in large measure for assisting in the winning of the
war.  In my last report I described a Chemical Warfare School, the
Civilian Pilot Training Program carried out in cooperation with the
Civil Aeronautics Administration, and  other war efforts.  Three
extensive training services, including an Officer Candidate School, an
Army Air Force Crew Training Program, and the Army Specialized
Training Program for engineers and technical personnel, have been
operated by contract with the War Department.

The Extension Services, both General and Agricultural, have carried on 
enlarged programs, and wartime research has been stepped up tremendously 
both in engineering and in agriculture. Some of this research is confidential
and may not be revealed until the war is over.


On September 28, 1942, an Officer Candidate School was activated at the
University of Florida for the purpose of training officers who would serve
the Army in an administrative capacity.  There were about six of these schools
in the country, the third of which was established at the University
of Florida.  Over 1,500 officers were instructed at and graduated from
this School, nearly all of whom are now actively serving in the Army.
The School was operated directly in cooperation with the Adjutant
General's Office, War Department, and received high commendation from
the War Department.

Following negotiations with the Army Air Forces, in February, 1943, there was
activated at the University a program for the training of air cadets
with a quota of 750 trainees.  Beginning with the following May, and
continuing with reasonable regularity with the graduation and
replacement of approximately 150 trainees monthly until the close of
the program in June, 1944, the University served in the training of
2,994 members of the Air Forces.  The University was responsible for the 
academic instruction and physical training demanded in the program, while
officers and men of the Air Corps were assigned to the detachment to provide
overall supervision for the program and specific responsibility for the
military training.  The academic program consisted of mathematics,
physics, history, geography, English, civil air regulations, and
medical aid.  Each trainee also had ten hours of flight instruction.

In June, 1943, there was activated a unit of the Army Specialized Training
Program, having as its objective the preparation of technicians needed for the
several services of the United States Army.  The program at the University, to
which 494 trainees were originally allotted, was designed to cover the Basic 
Phase Curriculum and the Advanced Phase Curriculum in Engineering.  These were
followed by a group of approximately 100 former advanced ROTC students of the
University whom the military authorities returned to pursue their studies and
training until openings in Officer Candidate Schools occurred, by nearly fifty
trainees in the Preprofessional Curriculum leading to medicine and dentistry,
and by allotments of reservists.  In all, up to July 1, 1944, the University
had enrolled nearly 1,500 men in these various phases of the Army Specialized
Training Program.  In the Basic Phase Curriculum, the trainees studied
chemistry, mathematics, physics, English, history, geography, and
engineering drawing; in the Advanced Phase, the trainees pursued those
studies usually required by the professional schools of engineering,
medicine, and dentistry.  As with the Army Air Forces, the University assumed
responsibility for instruction in the academic
subjects and for physical training, while the Commandant and his staff
had charge of the military training and discipline.

Mr. Kenneth R. Williams, who was appointed Director of War Training Programs,
resigned in May, 1944, and was succeeded by Dr. J. Hooper Wise.  The
President of the University served as a member of an Advisory
Committee consisting of ten college presidents who were asked to
cooperate with the War Department in planning and developing the Army
Specialized Training Program.
Although contracts with the Federal Government did not permit profits to be
made by the institutions having war training programs, a considerable saving 
was effected through the absorption by the Government of costs for operation,
equipment, instruction, and other necessary functions which otherwise
would have had to be paid from State funds.  In the training of Air
Cadets and in the Army Specialized Training Program a total of more
than a million and a quarter dollars was paid to the University by the
Government.  Of this amount something over $750,000 was expended on
operation, on the Cafeteria, Residence Halls, Infirmary, Florida
Union, Book Store, and on other service units.  During these programs 1,600
men were fed three times a day and all were housed in the University 
Residence Halls. A sum of $527,238.07 was transmitted to the State Treasury
for payment of salaries, use of facilities, and depreciation on buildings and
equipment.  Details of finances during the biennium are set forth in the 
report of the Business Manager, but it may be noted in passing that there was
a balance of $69,426.36 available to the University from these two
programs as of June 30, 1944.

These programs enabled the University to retain the services of most of its
faculty and to utilize its plant facilities during the period when it
experienced its lowest civilian enrollment.  Through the extra funds
made available by the programs, an opportunity was provided for paying
the staff for overloads carried, and some increases in salary were
made possible.  Without these increases, there would have been
considerably more sacrifice on the part of the staff, and the number
of persons leaving the University for more remunerative employment
would have been much larger.

There were other training programs, including pre-radar courses, in which some
150 students were trained in 1942--1943.

A very effective and important phase of the training given through the 
extension service of the College of Engineering was the Engineering, Science,
and Management War Training Program, in which approximately 3,000 persons
were trained during the first year of the biennium and 2,000 during
the second year. Seventy-five sections of thirty-three different
courses, ranging from elementary physics and mathematics for high school
teachers to postgraduate courses in aircraft engineering, were given. 
This work was conducted under the direction of Professor
N. C. Ebaugh, Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

                      EXTENSION SERVICE

Both the General Extension Division and the Agricultural Extension Service
have considerably enlarged their activities during the past two years.  The 
General Extension Division has made a notable contribution to national and
civilian defense.  Approximately 2,000 men in the armed forces have been 
given correspondence courses through the University of Florida. The 
University, through this Division, follows the flag to where they are---to
England, India, and  literally to the ends of the earth.  G. I. Joe
has been offered 352 courses on the college and high school level.
Numerous other war activities have been carried on by this Division,
of which two were conducted in cooperation with the Adjutant General
of Florida.  The first involved the registration of workers on the job at
Camp Blanding for Selective Service, thereby saving 200,000 vitally important
work hours; the second, the coordination of the State Defense Council's 
training program. Schools were conducted for 1,773 instructors to train the 
Citizens Defense Corps in fire, gas, and other defense subjects required by
the Office of Civilian Defense.  By January, 1943, the State Defense
Council reported a total of 86,641 persons enrolled.

During the present war the Agricultural Extension Service has been confronted
with the greatest responsibilities in its history.  In times past its
activities have been confined purely to education.  Because of the
gigantic and essential demand for adequate food supplies, the Congress
called upon the Extension Service to undertake the administration of a
program providing for the recruitment, transportation, and housing of
labor to relieve the shortage brought about by the drafting of farm
youths into the armed forces.  Under agreement with the United States 
Department of Agriculture, allocations of funds were made by the Federal 
Government for this important work.  Twenty-six labor camps were provided 
with a combined housing capacity of more than 13,000 workers, and 3,650 
laborers were imported into the State.  Of these 1,600 were Jamaicans, 
1,200 were Bahamians, and 850 were prisoners of war.  These workers have been
supplied for the harvesting of citrus  fruits, strawberries, potatoes,
peanuts, sugar cane, and other Florida crops.

During the biennium $275,000 was allocated by the United States Department of
Agriculture to the Agricultural Extension Service programs, which were
conducted with economy as well as efficiency.  As a result,
substantial balances were returned to the Government at the expiration
of budgetary periods.


More research has been done at the University during this biennium than at
any other time in its history.  Much of this research is related to
the war effort, particularly in the fields of engineering and
agriculture.  Engineering research in behalf of the war effort has been 
subsidized by the Federal Government, and for this purpose approximately 
$112,000  has been received during the Biennium.  In  addition, the 1941 
session of the Florida Legislature appropriated $50,000 for strengthening 
and developing the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station. Funds 
from this appropriation were made available by the Budget Commission in the
second year of the biennium.  Most of the research being done for the
Government is of a secret nature.  However, rather outstanding results
have been achieved, and these will create pride in all friends of the
University when the facts are revealed.  For the development of
industries and the utilization of the State's products, researches are
being carried on in the utilization of lime rock, waste products,
particularly in the field of wood processing and canning, and
minerals. The possibility of establishing a ceramic industry in
Florida is being diligently explored.
There are two ways in which the State can enrich itself.  It must either 
exploit the wealth created by others or create wealth for itself.  Through the
Engineering Industrial and Experiment Station the University has been given a
fine opportunity for creative research which will upbuild the economic
structure of the State of Florida.

Agricultural research has been applied vigorously in the fields of food 
production and nutrition since these were of major assistance in the war

Not only in engineering and agriculture have there been increased activities
in research but with the reduction of teaching loads, which have long been too
heavy at the University, the scientific staff of the institution has
been enabled to make larger contributions than have hitherto been possible.


Through the Alumni Office, a monthly bulletin, The Fighting
Gators, has been sent to parents of servicemen for transmittal to
them in the field.  Included each month are news items giving accounts 
of the activities of alumni in the armed services and listing those reported 
wounded, taken prisoners of war, or lost by death.  At the end of the 
biennium, it was estimated that there were some 8,000 alumni in the armed 
services, and actual reports had been received from more than 4,000 of these.
About one-half were graduates. Among the graduates 76 per cent were officers,
12 per cent non-commissioned officers, and 12 per cent privates and seamen.
Of the non-graduates, 31 per cent were officers, 35 per cent non-commissioned 
officers, and 34 per cent privates and seamen. One hundred and seventy-eight 
have been listed as killed in action, fifty-eight as missing, and thirty 
as prisoners of war.

It is a source of considerable satisfaction that the percentage of former 
students of the University of Florida who are serving in the war effort is 
as large as that of other institutions of higher learning.  Furthermore,
Floridians in all parts of the World War theatre have displayed
unusual valor.  In part, this is indicated by the fact that 235 have
won some 553 decorations.  Among the outstanding aces in the Air Corps
are Lt. Don Fischer, '41; Captain Robert C. Miller, '40; Captain John
F. Bolt, Jr., '41; Colonel John Alison, '35; Captain Herbert H.
Long, '42; Lt. Louis A. Menard, Jr., '40; and Captain Sheldon
Brinson, '38.

The contribution of the faculty in the war training, extension, and research
programs has already been mentioned.  As stated in my last biennial report, the
University early adopted as a major policy the principle that
positions made vacant by leaves of absence or resignations be filled
only as emergency or necessity dictated.  At the height of the
training programs it was necessary to augment the faculty by
recruiting additional members, some from beyond the borders of the State.  
In this way the staff has been kept flexible and has been adjusted to wartime 
demands.  Annual leaves of absence were granted from the outset of the war
emergency to members of the faculty and staff who could be spared for
services in the war.  Some members of the staff, occupying positions
in critical fields, were requested to remain at the University rather than 
accept war service.  One hundred and forty-eight members of the staff were 
granted leaves.  Of this number 107 entered the armed services, including 
eighty-six from the instructional staff and thirty-one from the 
administration and maintenance staff. Five accepted positions related to 
the war effort, two pursued work towards their doctorate, while twenty-four 
whose services were not required at the University were allowed leaves for
personal reasons.  Practically all of those on military leave have
commissions in the various branches of the armed services.


As previously mentioned, during the biennium there was a decrease in the 
enrollment of civilian students which was rapidly accelerated by the 
induction of able-bodied boys down to the age of eighteen years.  However, 
the Army trainees,  together with the civilian students, substantially 
increased the enrollment until, during the second year of the biennium, 
there was a total enrollment of 4,717  students, the greatest number of any 
year in the history of the institution.

All colleges and departments of the University were kept open and no
educational opportunity was denied civilian students.  Student
government, the Honor System, most of the fraternities, intramural
athletics, and the usual activities were continued.  Intercollegiate
sports were discontinued in the year 1943--1944.  Some of the 
fraternities became dormant and their social activities were reduced to a 
minimum.  During a part of the period under survey the University leased 
some of the fraternity houses and made them a part of the Residence Hall 
system for use of civilian students.  This adjustment was necessary because 
the Army trainees occupied the campus residence halls.


                        BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT

The War Department paid the University 4 per cent on the value of buildings
which were used in the war training program.  These funds, added to
those available from State appropriations, have enabled us to keep the
plant in exceptionally good condition and even to improve some of the
buildings.  While the shortage of labor has, to some extent, hampered our 
maintenance service, the physical aspects of the University is, on the 
whole, better than could have been expected after two and a half years of war.

The Legislature, in its General Appropriation Bill of 1941, made provision for
the erection of three new buildings at the University of Florida.
These included:

(1) an addition to the University library, $150,000; 

(2) a College of Business Administration Building, $150,000; and

(3) a Dairy Barn, $50,000.

The sum of $80,000 was also appropriated for the rehabilitation of the
Agricultural Experiment Station Building.  Because of the shortage of
materials and labor, it was impossible to erect any of the new
buildings authorized.  By constant and indefatigable efforts, the 
rehabilitation of the Agricultural Experiment Station Building, begun in the
previous biennium, was sufficiently completed to permit occupancy.
The renovated building is of fireproof construction and has a new
interior design built into the walls and under the roof of the old
building.  The available space has been increased approximately
one-third ....


As usual, at the close of the biennium, I feel deeply indebted to many persons
and have no adequate words in which to express my gratitude.  I have
endeavored so to steer the University through these difficult war days
as to preserve the essential elements of a great institution of
learning, assist our nation in the most crucial war in history, and
plan for a greater University to serve a greater Florida. In these
efforts, I have had uncommon cooperation from my colleagues, both of  the 
administrative staff and the teaching faculty, as well as from the students.  
These two years have been peculiarly burdensome for members of the
Board of Control, because of the almost continuous readjustments in
staff and budgetary requirements, not to mention the extraordinary
problems arising of necessity from the war situation.  I want to thank
each of them for his patient consideration and for the constructive
help which he has given.  Beyond the Board of Control is the Board of 
Education which has, under the leadership of a Governor who, as an alumnus 
of the University of Florida, was peculiarly fitted to understand its needs,
supported by us in every possible manner.  And beyond the Board are
the people of the State  of Florida whose University we are
endeavoring to administer.  To all of these and others I express my
grateful appreciation.

                                 Respectfully submitted,
                                      Jno. J. Tigert 
                                           President, University of Florida''

Now we may read what our own Head Professor Thomas Simpson wrote as part of this report, in his role as Dean of the Graduate School.

To the President of the University:

SIR: I beg to submit the following report of the activities of
the Graduate School for the biennium ending June 30, 1944.

During the war, the enrollment in the Graduate School has held up better than
might have been expected.  The lowest registration was reached in 1942, when 
40 graduate students enrolled each semester of the regular year.  The
first term of the 1944 Summer School showed a registration of 97 students, 
an increase of about 28 per cent over the previous summer. A total of 70 
master's and 7 doctor's degrees were conferred during the period.  Throughout 
the biennium, we operated on a diminished budget with a reduction in the 
amount spent for research and for graduate council assistantships.

In the spring of 1944, the Graduate Council made a study of the problem of
the master's degree. As a result of this study, we inaugurated a new degree,
Master of Education, designed to meet the needs of in-service

The School of Trade and Industrial Education at Daytona Beach offered only
two three-week terms in each of the summers of 1943 and 1944. Previously, it 
had offered three terms each summer.  Ten to twelve graduate students were
registered. A Short Course for Doctors of Medicine has been given in
Jacksonville each year in June under the auspices of the Florida
Medical Association, the State Board of Health, and the Graduate
School of the University of Florida.  These courses have been very successful,
attracting from 150 to 200 physicians through a carefully
worked out program of lectures by eminent specialists.  In cooperation with the
General Extension Division, the Graduate School has provided a special
service to teachers in Jacksonville during the emergency.  A graduate
course was offered in the spring of 1943, the fall of 1943, and the
spring of 1944.

Graduate research funds provided necessary X-ray equipment for biology, motion
picture films for psychology, library material, and books and periodicals, for 
all departments offering graduate work.

There is a close integration of the Graduate School with the Research Council.
Promotion of research by encouragement and aid to exceptional graduate students
should continue to be an important part of our program.  It is highly important
to offer to such students inducements in the form of graduate
assistantships and research fellowships, which will encourage superior
students to pursue advanced work and independent research.

                                                 Respectfully submitted,
                                                       T. M. Simpson, Dean''

Appendix B

Mathematics in a Dark Room
by Dr. Rick Smith, Department of Mathematics [Editorial Note: in this appendix, we reproduce an article which our colleague, Professor Rick Smith, wrote for the CLAS Notes Volume 8, Number 4, April, 1994, about Professor Theral Moore.]

His class is conducted the way one hopes for a mathematics class. He arrives on time, begins by asking questions, assembles a neat body of work on the chalk board, pulls the students into participation, and maintains an orderly environment. The class is engaged. They seem to sense the partnership between themselves and this professor. Someone once said to him, ``You don't even know you have a handicap.'' Students have been known to take weeks to notice and some are never quite sure. He adamantly refuses to let anyone make a fuss about the fact that he is blind. He is a Mathematics professor, Theral Moore, and, as a TIP award winner, he is one of our best.

He came to UF in 1955 with a fresh Ph.D. from the University of Missouri. While not the oldest member of the Mathematics faculty, he has been here the longest. He was born with retinitis pigmentosa. The symptoms are tunnel vision and the fading of the central vision. Theral's vision degenerated rapidly leaving him with minimal sight and legally blind. In his junior year at the University of Arkansas a professor told him about the special binoculars that jewelers wear for magnifying close objects. With the binoculars, Theral could read, seeing a few letters at a time. As he points out, mathematical writing is terse and logically condensed, so the binoculars, which would be hopeless for any large amount of reading, worked well for mathematics. During this time, he continued his research in topology and wrote a book, Elementary General Topology, which appeared in 1964. He used the binoculars until 1972 when the retinal nerves completely detached and he became totally blind.

Visual vs. Formal. At this state I am going to speculate a bit on the cognitive modes of mathematicians. This is sure to stir up my colleagues, but maybe that is not so bad. I tend to view two modes in our discipline; the visual, predominantly for the geometrically oriented, and the formal, for the symbolically oriented. This is not a clean dichotomy. Simple Darwinian selection principles in graduate training ensure a Ph.D. mathematician is facile in both modes. Still, I would argue that within individuals there are tendencies or preferences for one mode over another.

Moore is a topologist. Topology is a strongly visual, geometric subdiscipline of mathematics. This confounds me. He cannot see! He must deal with mathematical objects formally! I am wrong. He sees with his mind's eye. In 1972 he switched to number theory. Now this makes some sense, part of number theory are very formal. Ah hah! When he could not see, he reverted to formalism. Again I am wrong. He had no means of staying current in topology, so he began a collaboration with Edwin Hadlock, a number theorist. Through the grace of this collaboration he extended his research program. So much for arm chair psychology.

In 1962 Theral married Nancy Hadlock, the daughter of his future collaborator. They have two sons, Steven and David, and three grandchildren. Nancy escorts him to and from his classes. They recently completed a book, Complex Analysis (1991). In working on the book Nancy learned LaTeX, a mathematical typesetting language. This is not a user-friendly WYSIWYG language. LaTeX has more in common with a programming language than a word processor. Working from a set of notes she did the typing. A cadre of students checked the formatting. It was then read to Theral who would listen closely to the prose and re-weigh each argument. Then the revision loop would return to Nancy. In this manner they produced the book in just two years.

The Dark Room. To understand what he does I devised a Gedanken experiment. I imagined sitting in a dark room. It is a lecture hall. I can hear the speaker. ``Now you will notice that along this curve ....'' I cannot see his drawing. ``If we come back to this index formula ....'' He had written a formula on the board ten minutes earlier. Someone from the audience asks, ``Is the second line on the middle board correct?'' I am struggling to remember the layout of the boards. There is another question. ``Can we not view the value m as ... '' So it goes, my only hope for understanding is to keep a complete mental picture of the lecture. The thought experiment runs away from me. Now I am the speaker and the tables have been turned. I am speaking the speaker's words. Somehow I am writing the formulas on the board without seeing them, drawing the pictures and labeling them with values, without seeing them, and the questions are being addressed to me. It is in this runaway second part of the experiment that I begin to understand what Theral does every day.

The Narrative Flow. Theral prepares his lectures by listening to them. He has tapes of the books that he uses. In the past the tapes were prepared by student readers. Now he gets a full set of tapes from a company in New Jersey. Listening, he picks up the idiosyncrasies of the textbook, the examples the book uses, and the exercises. All of this material he organizes carefully. When it is presented, there is a rhythm to the lectures as he combines his story with board work.

My colleagues in the humanities have talked about the ``narrative flow'' in their work. The narrative flow is built around a sequence of cues that is filled out in the presentation. Lectures in mathematics are much the same where theorems, formulas, and diagrams constitute milestones that guide the flow of the presentation on a theoretical terrain. We use pictures to display concisely the relationships among the variables as visual cues. Most of us carry a variety of cues into the classroom in the form of written notes, the textbook, overhead slides, and the like. Mathematicians can get by on relatively few cues because the logic propels the delivery. The resulting board work during the delivery becomes part of an almost self-sustaining set of further cues. Seeing the work as it develops provides more cues.

Theral cannot prepare for his classes in the same way. The variety of visual crutches that we use are not available to him. As I imagine it, he actually places in memory, planes full of graphical information. In computer graphics, a whole screen of data stored in resident memory is called a ``back plane.'' Theral has numerous back planes which carry what his lecture will look like when it is presented. This keeps his board work organized. He knows where he is going to write the next line. He knows where he can erase. He knows where to go back to point to a relevant part when questioned. He knows the next cue in his story. Each lecture for him is an intellectual exercise beyond just the linear organization of the material. Experience has taught him how to piece the back planes together into a smooth narrative flow. In this way Theral Moore illuminates the dark room.

Appendix C

Louis Karpinski and American History of Mathematics Prior to World War II

We have learned in Chapter 8 that Franklin Kokomoor did his doctoral work at the University of Michigan under the direction of Dr. L. C. Karpinski during the 1920's, and that part of Kokomoor's research had involved two weeks of study at the private library of George Plimpton in New York City. We have also noted that Kokomoor published his dissertation in the journal Isis. Fortunately, in connection with the centennial of the American Mathematical Society, a three volume work was produced, which includes an article by Uta Merzbach on The Study of the History of Mathematics in America: A Centennial Sketch, cf. [1]. This article is the source of the materials in this appendix.

The two earliest workers in this area were apparently the Swiss immigrant Florian Cajori (1859--1930), who had come to the United States at the age of 16. After attaining the B.S. from the University of Wisconsin in 1883, Cajori studied at Johns Hopkins during 1884--1885. Then he spent three years as an Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Professor of Applied Mathematics at Tulane. Cajori spent a year in Washington, D.C. as a researcher at the Bureau of Education, which resulted among other publications in the first comprehensive history of mathematics in the United States, cf. [2]. Following this year in Washington, Cajori spent the next 30 years at Colorado College, where he served as Professor of Physics from 1889--1898, Professor of Mathematics from 1898--1918, and Dean of the Department of Engineering from 1903--1918. In 1908, Cajori was asked to contribute to Cantor's History of Mathematics, evidence that Cajori was known in international circles.

A second major and extremely prolific figure in the American history of mathematics was David Eugene Smith (1860--1943). Smith studied art and classical languages at Syracuse University, graduating in 1881. Although Smith was admitted to the bar in New York State three years later, he preferred to teach mathematics at the State Normal School in Cortland at the same time as he was taking further graduate work at Syracuse. In spite of attaining a Ph.D. with a dissertation on classical art, Smith became Professor of Mathematics at the State Normal College at Ypsilanti, Michigan. He also took a degree in pedagogy there, before becoming ``principal'' of this normal school. Later, he became the Professor of Mathematics at the Teachers College of Columbia University. Merzbach has the following comments on one of Smith's books published in 1908, cf. [1, pp. 645--646]:

``Among his major works of the pre-World War I period one must single out
Rara Arithmetica, a Catalogue of the Arithmetics Written before the Year
MDCI with a Description of Those in the Library of George Arthur Plimpton
of New York.  Not only has this work remained a standard reference among
bibliographers, book collectors, and historians of early modern mathematics,
but it served to cement his friendship with Plimpton, who was the chairman
of Ginn and Company from 1914 to 1931.  Both men were collectors; for years,
Smith assisted Plimpton in developing the mathematical parts of his library.
Not surprisingly, Ginn published many of Smith's books.''

Smith served on the American Mathematical Society Committee on Publications from 1903--1909, as an editor of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society from 1910--1920, and was Librarian of the American Mathematical Society from 1902--1920. He also had been active in the formation of the Chicago Section of the American Mathematical Society during 1896--1897. Thus Merzbach provides an example of how historians of mathematics were much more important in the affairs of the American Mathematical Society at the turn of the century than they would be during the post-World War II years. Merzbach [1, pp. 646--649] has the following comments about Smith's influence while he was serving at the Teachers College of Columbia University:

``Aside from his publications and his organizational activities, Smith exerted
strong influence on mathematics education and the history of
mathematics through his teaching.  His courses were extremely
popular....  Although his strongest influence was exerted on the
students enrolled in Teachers College, it was not limited to these.
Numerous students from the mathematics department in Columbia College
attended Smith's courses; for example, E. T. Bell [1945] described his
experience when sent there by Cassius Jackson Keyser (1862--1947),
long-time member of the Columbia mathematics faculty, who taught
history of mathematics himself at times and steered students to him.

In twenty years, Smith's graduate students at Teachers College produced
respectable theses devoted to the history of mathematics
education.... Smith's influence and collaborations extended
beyond his regular graduate students, however.

In the academic year 1909--1910, an instructor from the University of
Michigan spent a year's leave of absence at Teachers College.  The stay 
resulted in a joint publication by Smith and Louis Charles
 (1878--1956) on The Hindu-Arabic Numerals, which was
widely hailed as the best exposition on this frequently treated topic.
Karpinski was a graduate of Cornell University who had presented a
dissertation on distribution of quadratic residues to obtain his
Ph.D. degree from the University of Strassburg in 1903.  He, too, had
gained his first teaching experience as a young man, when he had
taught mathematics at Berea College in Kentucky.  After his return
from Strassburg, he spent a year as instructor at the New York State 
Normal school in Oswego, after which he joined the faculty of the University 
of Michigan, where he remained the rest of his life.  His interest and
competence in the medieval period was demonstrated further in 1912 when his
paper on ``The `Algebra' of Abu Kamil Shoja ben Aslam'' appeared
in Enestrom's Bibliotheca Mathematica. 

By 1914, these individuals [ed., Cajori, Smith, Karpinski,
Woodward, Carus, Archibald] formed an active group, promoting the
history of mathematics as an independent research field, as a
motivating subject for teachers of mathematics, as a stimulus for
mathematical research, and as a source of general edification and
pleasure.  Conscious of the limited availability of reference materials
and libraries, they collaborated in making requisite primary
and secondary source materials more easily available, be it through
book purchases, through translations, through bibliographies, through
text editions and analyses, or simply through reviews.''

More information about Karpinski's later career is provided in [1, pp. 649--653]:

``During the post-World War I period, history of mathematics grew steadily
in America and flourished within the mathematical community.  It is true that
World War I markedly affected research and international collaboration
in history of mathematics as it did in other fields. For example, 
Bibliotheca Mathematica, whose rigorous editor had featured research
contributions by Cajori, Karpinski, Miller, and Smith, ceased
publication after 1914.  The International Commission on the Teaching
of Mathematics, in which David Eugene Smith had become of considerable
influence, suspended its operations as well.  Yet, during a period of
institutional growth in this country, American historians of
mathematics reached a peak of professional involvement and sharpened
their research.  

On the founding of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) in 1915,
Cajori, Smith, and Archibald became even more involved in organizational
activities.  All three, as well as Karpinski, Miller, and others sympathetic
to mathematical history, were charter members of the Association. Cajor
i served as president (1917--1918) and was a member of several committees
which prepared lists of suggested mathematical books for college and junior college
libraries---Archibald, Cajori, and Karpinski were elected vice-presidents of
the American Association for the Advancement of Science; Archibald served
of the Belgian historian of science George Sarton (1884--1956).  
Sarton, an admirer of Poincare, had turned from philosophy to study chemistry
and mathematics.  After obtaining his doctorate with a thesis on the mechanics
of Newton in 1911, he founded the journal Isis, the first volume of
which appeared in 1912.  It was conceived as an international journal for the
history of science; Sarton edited it from his home outside Ghent.  Upon the
invasion of Belgium at the beginning of World War I, Sarton buried many of
his research notes in his garden and fled to England.  In 1915, Sarton
came to the United States, assisted by Smith.  The following year, he held an
appointment at the philosophy department at Harvard.  Woodward created for
him a position as associate in the history of science at Carnegie,
which became effective in 1918.  It was this appointment that fed Sarton for
many years, even after Harvard offered him research space and library facilities.
In addition, the Carnegie Institution sponsored the publication of
Sarton's monumental Introduction to the History of Science ...;
the scope of the project far exceeded available resources, however,
and only three volumes could be completed.

Sarton is justly credited with establishing the history of science as an
academic discipline in the United States and with shaping the basic research
tools needed by workers in the field.  Because his journal 
Isis had been the official journal of the History of Science
Society since the founding of that society in 1924, it is often
assumed that the Society was his sole creation as well.  In fact,
however, the establishment of the Society involved several
American historians of mathematics, notably the indefatigable David Eugene
Smith.  In 1915, Smith had called attention to Isis through a
note published in Science.  In December 1923, Smith sent a letter to
45 individuals, suggesting a meeting in Boston.  As a result, the next month,
37 individuals met and founded the History of Science Society; besides Sarton,
the organizing committee included Archibald, E. W. Brown, Karpinski, Smith and
H. W. Tyler, among others....

Merzbach has the following comments on American history of mathematics and American mathematics during the 1930's [1, pp. 653--657]:

``Through hindsight it is possible to detect the beginning of a decline
in mathematical history in the late twenties.  By the end of World War II,
American research results in the history of mathematics were becoming
scarce, and the most widely read expository presentations sacrificed
accuracy for literary bon mots or philosophic preconceptions.  The
best research was no longer published in the mathematical journals;
and the occasional expository article dealing with the history tended
to be chatty.  The quality of courses in the history of mathematics,
never very demanding, sank further.  In the minds of most
mathematicians, history of mathematics had lost any claim to status as
a legitimate field of mathematical specialization.

In the early thirties, the change was not obvious.  To be sure, in 1931
the Bulletin [ed., of the American Mathematical
Society] dropped from its masthead the reference to being `a
historical and critical review of mathematical science.'  It still
carried an occasional historical book review; but neither in the 
Bulletin nor in other American research journals could one
find the historical framework that had once surrounded many research
articles.  Yet there appeared to be other outlets for historical

The Monthly continued to publish a variety of readable
articles, covering a wide range of mathematical history, which
occasionally included original research.

In 1932, a new journal was founded, entitled Scripta Mathematica.  Its
masthead proclaimed that it was `A Quarterly Journal Devoted to the
Philosophy, History and Expository Treatment of Mathematics.'  The
editor-in-chief of the journal was Jekuthiel Ginsburg of Yeshiva
University; the listing of the editorial board read like a Who's Who
in the History and Philosophy of Mathematics: it consisted of
Archibald, Karpinski, Keyser, Loria, Simons, and Smith  ... . There
was a pleasant mixture of original research and exposition in the
historical articles; most active historians of mathematics contributed
to Scripta at some time during the thirties and forties.......

The aging pioneers continued their work  ... . Karpinski continued his
bibliographic work, culminating in his Bibliography of Works Published
in America Prior to 1850, which appeared in 1940.  Before his retirement
in 1948, he had built up the mathematical rare book and manuscript collection
at the University of Michigan, produced bibliographies on cartography,
sold his map collection to Yale University, served a term as chairman
of Section L of the AAAS, and, in 1941, been elected president of the
History of Science Society.

The interest in popularization and biography during the late thirties and
forties was not peculiar to the history of mathematics.  Among American
historians this was a time of major controversy concerning these two issues.
   ...  American historians had come a long way since the turn of the century
in developing research strength and generational continuity and perhaps 
benefitted from vigorous debates.  American historians of mathematics,
however, had just begun to show their research potential.  Their limited
publication outlets for serious research contributions were being shut down
by the spread of National Socialism on the European continent and the
competition for increasingly limited resources at home.  The disdain for
historians expressed by men like [ed., E. T.] Bell was
hardly designed to encourage young people with an interest in
mathematics to take up the study of history.  All of this exacerbated
the major problem, which was that there was no new generation of
historians of mathematics to take the place of those who were retiring
in the 1930s.  Smith and Karpinski had had substantial numbers of
graduate students; but even among those who made sound contributions
to the history of mathematics had been prepared to become mathematics
`educators', not historians of mathematics.  Their
careers were in teaching and administration; the time people like Sanford
and Simons found to edit and produce historical articles is a testament
to their devotion to the subject.  Neither economic conditions nor the
academic climate, said to have produced a `schism in scholarship' [Higham
1970], could be expected to encourage many to take up a research career
in a fading field.''

As an interesting coincidence from the viewpoint of our own study, Merzbach's final paragraph [1, pp. 659] on Karpinski reveals that after ending his years at the University of Michigan, he retired to Florida to spend his remaining years as a book dealer.


  1. Uta Merzbach, ``A Study of the History of Mathematics in America: A Centennial Sketch,'' in A Century of Mathematics in America, Part III, ed., P. Duren, American Mathematical Society History of Mathematics, Volume 3, Part III (1989), pp. 639--666.
  2. Florian Cajori, The teaching and history of mathematics in the United States, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1890.